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European Union and Historical Hellas. The Fabricated Macedonian Question

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Fabricated-Macedonian-Quest

(A Historic Perspective of the problem)
by Dr. Ioannis N. Kallianiotis
Economics/Finance Department
The Arthur J. Kania School of Management
University of Scranton
Scranton, PA 18510-4602, U.S.A.
E-Mail: jnk353 at scranton.edu

JEL (Classification): D6, F15, N01
Key Words:  Economic Welfare, Economic Integration, Economic History

 

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to provide some information and a scientifically true analysis on the 8,000 years of Hellenic (Greek) history and to examine what this information means to us and to the world as a whole. We will offer some thoughts and unshaken historic events that may help to answer questions concerning today’s conditions in south-eastern Europe, the borders of the “Christendom” (currently, European Union). It is imperative that all scholars, politicians, decision makers, students, and intellectual human beings have this information regarding an artificial state, Skopje, created recently between Greece and Serbia, because we are responsible for all young people of this planet and we must tell them the plain truth in simple words, away from any expediency, propaganda, and anti-scientific delusion. This new state has unlawfully chosen the Greek name “Macedonia” for its nation and Greece is objecting their aggressiveness and their expansiveness. It is historically wrong for them to use Greek names and symbols because they have nothing in common with Greeks and their old name was Vardarska.

 

I. Introduction

Hellenic history and culture have contributed a great deal to the European and the entire western civilization that we find their seal everywhere, today. The democracy of ancient Greece, 1See, Jones (1997) the accomplishments of her people,2See, Kebric (1997) and Kitto (1987) the great ideas of her moral philosophers,3See, Marchant and Todd (1997) scientists and artists,4See, Pedley (1998) and finally, the dramatic events which have unfolded in the glorious history of the Greek nation because of its geographical position and its persistence in Christian truth have always been a source of creative inspiration to all nations.5But, at the same time, Hellas faces a lot of opposition from heretics (heterodoxs) and other religions (allodoxs) because of her traditional Orthodoxy and her Hellenic paideia. Greece has truly improved mankind.

The ancient Hellenic civilization is called the “classical” one; later the word “classical” became the source of standards by which subsequent achievements can be measured.6With their wisdom, like: “Moderation in all things” (Pa`n mevtron a[riston), they set the foundations and advanced the world. “There is a quality of excellence about Ancient Greece that brooks few comparisons.” 7See, Davies (1998, p. 95). These peoples (Greeks) shared the same language (in an oral and written literature) and they recognized a common heritage “Hellenes” ( {Ellhne~), which they did not share with other men. They belonged, as they felt, to “Hellas”.8Hellenes had the same blood, the same language, and the same religion (o{maimon, oJmovglwsson kai; oJ-movqrhskon), according to Herodotus ( JHrovdoto~), 5th century B.C. See, Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179) The non-Greeks were “barbarians”. The achievement and importance of Greece comprehended all sides of life. “The Greeks did more for future civilization than any of their predecessors.” 9See, Roberts (1997, p. 43). All Europe drew interest on the “capital” Greece laid down, and through Europe the rest of the world has benefited from what Greeks offered to human civilization. Alexander, the son of Philip, is one of those historical Greek figures called “Great”. He was a passionate Hellene, 10See, Roberts (1997, p. 47). who believed Achilles 11See, Homer’s Iliad. was his ancestor and carried with him on his campaigns a treasured copy of Homer. He had been tutored by Aristotle. Alexander the Great had a staggering record of success, even though that he died at the age of 33 years old. The history of Europe is the history of the Western civilization (a Greek-Christian civilization).12The European civilization was a Hellenic-Orthodox civilization up to the 9th century A.D., before its barbaric invasions from West and North. See, Sakarellos (2005). Indisputable, Roman civilization was descended from the earliest Greek (Hellenic) civilization.13See, Jones (1997), Kebric (1997), Vasiliev (1980), and Paparrigopoulos (2003). Today, the European Union has changed drastically because of so many influences by different sub-cultures. “European, or Western, civilization originated from the fusion of German (barbarian) culture and Roman (Hellenic-Christian) civilization during the Dark Ages from the 5th to the 10th century A.D.” 14See, Blum, Cameron, and Barnes (1970, p. 4). Of course, history repeats itself. There were even monetary and economic unions in Ancient Greece, i.e., “the Common of Euboeans”, in 2nd century B.C.,15See, Vranopoulos (1995, p. 168). where they issued a common currency, but they did not last for very long time because of the oppression on their member-states.

History, scientific truth, divine justice, morality, and human respect are social necessities and they require satisfaction. Each man enjoys existence according to his labor and by himself he determines his future, his heritage, his nation and thus, affects the world. Mutual solidarity, joint responsibility, and real love are essential not only for the life of families, but also for the history of nations and the coexistence of this Cosmos (Kovsmo~ = order, ornament). Moral, ethical, and uncorrupted leadership is necessary to promote patriotism and indigenous value system of a sovereign nation.

Today, the Hellenes (Greeks), even though that they are members of NATO and European Union (EU), remain ever-vigilant against the expansionistic plans of their neighbors and especially now, since the fall of the communism, Skopjeans have begun to make claims against northern Greece. They have spread far and wide propaganda that Macedonians are not Greeks and they style themselves as the true Macedonians (sic). They have spread lies and disinformation everywhere in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Europe. But the question remains, how can they be Macedonians without being Greeks? And, how dared some nations to turn a blind eye to the historic and scientific truth and recognize this pseudo-state as “Macedonia”?

 

II. Hellas’ Historical Journey

Archeological evidence suggests that the Hellenic peninsula, the island of Crete, and the Aegean Cycladic Islands had been inhabited as far back as 6000 B.C. During the Bronze Age (3000-2800 B.C.) these inhabitants developed great cities, powerful navies and rich commerce, resulting in two great civilizations, the Cycladic-Minoan (2500-1400 B.C.) that we can see in Thera (Santorini), Knossos, and Phestos, and the Mycenaean (1600-1100 B.C.) found in Peloponnesos. The Iliad, the Homeric epic, written in approximately the 9th century B.C. illustrates this point through the story of the famed Trojan expedition of the Mycenaeans and many other famous Greek city-states led by the glorious king Agamemnon. Therefore, Greeks are in Asia Minor since 11th century B.C.16Unfortunately, in 1920, Greeks faced a dreadful genocide and unlawful expulsion from their ancestral homeland by Kemal pasha (a hospitable of history from Mongolia), after living in this region for 3,000 years.  

The Dorian migration to the Greek mainland about 1100 to 900 B.C., marked the beginning of the Geometric Period (900-700 B.C.), which is the first period of recorded history. During the Geometric Period the various tribes developed a common alphabet (that Greece uses up to now)17This is the Greek language (oJmovglwsson), a unique instrument of communication, used in sciences (mostly, in medicine, computers, etc.), and in arts.
and religious system (the twelve Olympian gods),18Of course, Greek philosophers in the 5th century B.C. doubted about these gods and introduced the “Unknown God”, for whom they built a temple.
and a uniform, though separate (city-state), form of government. Also, cultural unity was further enhanced by the establishment of the Olympic Games in 776 B.C., an athletic event involving all of the Greek city-states in peaceful competition19Completely different of what we see today with illicit antagonism, drugs, exercise of power among nations, millions of dollars involvements, and by taking  the modern Olympic Games out from the country of their origin (Olympia in Greece). and social unity. Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries were also constructed.20For example, the most common sanctuaries were in Olympia, Delphi, Dodoni (or Dodona), etc. See also, Elizabeth R. Gebhard, The Evolution of a Pan-Hellenic Sanctuary: From Archaeology towards History at Isthmia (This article originally appeared in Greek Sanctuaries, New Approaches (1993, pp.154-177), and is made available electronically with the permission of the editors.) It should be noted that such unity included the cultural and commercial development in the various colonies established by some of the city-states of the mainland Greece –spreading from the Black Sea and Asia Minor to Italy, Sicily and expanding to the coastal areas of France and Spain.

The Archaic Period (800-550 B.C.) was a time, in which cultural integration progressed, though tribes continued to divide politically into the two most powerful and rival city-states, Athens and Sparta. Sparta developed a semi-totalitarian society with a rigid military code based on territorial conquest; while Athens, a more loosely ordered and democratic society encouraged cooperation between city-states and cultivation of the intellect and the fine arts. The two rivals united for a time against a common foreign enemy, during the Persian wars, which lasted from the battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. to the battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) to the naval battle of Salamis (479 B.C.), and the battle of Plataea in 479 B.C.21In 490 B.C., with the victorious battle of Marathon and the battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) with the sacrifice of Leonidas (300 Spartans, 700 Thespeans, and 200 Thebeans); Athenians and the other Greek states repelled Persian invasions and Athens assumed leadership of Greek alliance. A year later (479 B.C.), the battle of Salamis was Athenians’ greatest naval victory and the same were the battles of Plataea and Mycale. 

The Classical Period (480-323 B.C.) marked the height of Greek cultural development. As the leader of the Delian Confederacy, an alliance among the main Greek city-states, Athens flourished both economically and culturally. The wealth that they accumulated from shipping, trading, and tribute from allies enabled the Athenians to beautify their city with buildings, temples, theaters, and other magnificent monuments. Under their leader Pericles, architects designed and constructed buildings on the Acropolis, in the Agora and the surrounding area. In the cultural sphere, philosophers, poets, historians, orators, and artists produced some of the greatest works of art and literature. The playwrights Aeschylus, Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes; the architects Ictinus and Callicrates; the sculptors Pheidias, Scopas, and Praxiteles; the historian Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon; the orator Demosthenes; the philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle all lived during this time. The Golden Age of Athens. #22 

The Spartans, jealous of Athenian political hegemony conquered Athens in the fifth century after the 27 year Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.). Even though Athens never regained her former military strength, Athenian cultural life continued to prosper. From 450 B.C. to 300 B.C., it was the intellectual period, where Socrates taught about the soul and spoke of the Unknown God hoping that He would reveal Himself. Plato and Aristotle made significant contributions to human thought with their moral philosophy and their foundations on almost every science (except Probability Theory), while sculptors such as Pheidias, Scopas, Praxiteles, and others experimented with new forms of artistic expression by putting the standard for the future and beautified Athens.

While Athens and Sparta struggled for military supremacy, a new, more powerful political force began to emerge in Macedonia (the Northern part of Greece). In the four decades before the Hellenistic Period (323-146 B.C.), the Macedonians under King Philip II (359 B.C.) forcefully united most of the Greek city-states after defeating Athens and Thebes in battle at Chaeronea, and built a powerful Hellenic confederacy.23Because as Hellenes, all these city-states had the same blood, the same language, and the same religion (o{maimon, oJmovglwsson kai; oJmovqrhskon), according to Herodotus ( JHrovdoto~), 5th century B.C. and many other similarities as Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179) refers them. The illustrious Alexander the Great, the son of King Philip, schooled by Aristotle, embarked on a historic expedition in 336 B.C. to conquer the vast empire of the Persians (punish them for their past invasions of Greece). In only eleven years he subdued this mighty foe and extended Hellenic influence far into Africa and Asia, as far as India.24Because as Hellenes, all these city-states had the same blood, the same language, and the same religion (o{maimon, oJmovglwsson kai; oJmovqrhskon), according to Herodotus ( JHrovdoto~), 5th century B.C. and many other similarities as Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179) refers them. Alexander’s achievement marked the height of Hellenic military power.25There are many tribes in Asia today that they claim of being descendants of Greeks, since that time of Alexander, like the Kallas in northern Iran.

Following Alexander’s death (323 B.C.), violent and frequent warfare among rival Greek leagues tore apart the Empire. These conflicts rendered the Greek city-states vulnerable to invasion. Finally, in 146 B.C., after fifty years of war, Roman legions conquered Greece. Although conquered, the Greek culture “subjugated” the Roman culture. During and after the Hellenistic Period, the classical Greek culture and Greek language were dominant throughout the Orient.26Even the Gospels were written in Greek language and with this language the New Religion was spread to the entire known world of that time. This was the language of the Greek King Alexander the Great and his descendants. The non-Greek speaking nations were “barbarians” outside the Hellenic culture and paideia (paideiva). This is the historic truth and not what some pseudo-states anxiously try to distort the science of history. In A.D. 50, the Apostle Paul preached Christianity in Greece, and from the time when he spoke to the Athenians about their “Unknown God”, for whom they already had a temple, a common religion, the Hellenic Orthodoxy united them and made them an inseparable group, the Greek-Orthodox people.27The proportion of Greeks that are Orthodox is 98% of the population. Someone that is not Orthodox could not be considered Greek, too. This is the homogeneity and uniqueness of these people..  Also, the use of the Greek language in writing the Gospel and by the Eastern Church and her fathers gave a new dimension to Hellenic culture and created the spiritual Medieval Hellenic (Byzantine) culture.

The Christianization of the Roman Empire in 313 A.D. and the building of Constantinople (325 A.D.) by the Constantine the Great launched Greece along a different historical and cultural path. The relocation of the capital from Rome to the site of ancient Byzantium contributed to the preeminence of Greek culture as a source of political power, and in the end the impact of Hellenism proved irresistible. For the next eleven centuries, until the fall of Constantinople on Tuesday, May 29, 1453, the Greek language and culture refashioned by Orthodox Christianity, formed the sinews of the Byzantine Empire, the Medieval Hellenic Empire.

During those eleven centuries of the Byzantine Period (324-1453 A.D.), Byzantine and Greek history were virtually inseparable. All Greeks had abandoned paganism and adopted Christianity. This led to a magnificent flowering of Byzantine spiritual culture, hymnography, architecture, literature, art, mostly in the form of monastic frescoes and new religious iconography. The fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans propelled Greece into her darkest period. Muslim Turks, who came from the Far East Asia and had nothing in common with the Hellenic-Orthodox values, ruled Greece with a cruel and ruthless hand throughout much of the Middle Ages. Even though, Greeks kept an inextinguishable awareness of their glorious past and ethnicity and their true faith through the Orthodox Church, monasteries, and the memories passed on from generation to generation.

The Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the Roman Empire.28See, Vasiliev (1980). It was its evolution and transformation in the East. The transposition of the center of gravity of the Roman nation from West to East (3rd century A.D.), the transfer of the capital to an area predominance of the Greek spirit and language and the intense effect of Orthodoxy combined, and created the starting point of one autonomous historic march of the eastern sphere of the Empire. Byzantium was a new political form, where Hellenism and Orthodoxy created a new ( JEllhnorqovdoxon) culture.29The contribution of the three hierarchs (Sts. Vassilios, Grigorios, and Ioannis) is unique in the connection of the ancient Greek moral paideia with the Christian revealed values.
 
The Byzantine Orthodox hymns30<<Sw`son Kuvrie tovn laovn Sou kai; eujlovghson thvn klhronomivan Sou, nivka~ toi`~ basileu`si katav barbavrwn dwrouvmeno~ kai; tovn Sovn fulavtton diav tou` Staurou` Sou polivteuma.>> Hymn chanting on the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross. emphasize that the people of Byzantium are the “people of the Lord”. The same can be seen in other historic texts and it is clear that the perception of the Empire’s role as a divinely guided entity prevailed throughout the world of Byzantium.31The same beliefs continue to hold even today in the Greek Orthodox state and the Greeks of Diaspora, who are more than 100 million people of Greek origin spread around the world. This unique culture is inconceivable by any other sub-culture. The citizens of the Byzantium are understood to be the “chosen” people of God, the genuine Christian people of the “God guarded” Christian-Orthodox nation, compared with the heterodox of the west; of course, no comparison can be made with the allodox or pagans of today. During its whole journey in history, Byzantium had the same strong perception that among the fundamental goals of the nation was the protection of the Christian faith, its propagation, and its perpetuation until the Second Coming. Surrounded most of the time by nations of other religions, the Christian people were obliged to defend their faith, because in this way, they saved their national identity.32The problem that Greece is facing today is the dilution of her identity due to millions of Muslims illegal immigrants that Turkey is smuggling into the Greek nation. This is a new Turkish invasion to Greece after the previous one in 1974 in Northern Cyprus. They had a strong involvement in religious strifes, an exceptional sensitivity towards heresies, and dogmatic opposition.

Byzantines were defending their religious unity because in it they viewed the unity of their communities, “in a community where all, laymen and clergymen relied on the Christian faith for their existence, and reach a point where every act was judged from a religious point of view”33See, Tamara Rice, JO dhmovsio~ kai; ijdiwtikov~ bivo~ tw`n Buzantinw`n, met. F. Bw`ro~, Papazhvsh~,jAqh`nai, s. 94.. The faithful awaited the blessing of the church to attain a better life, not only in the other world but also in this earthly one. Every faithful was giving to the church, without reservation, the right to involve in his every day life. The church blessed his marriage, his house, his animals, his fields, his crops, his bread, his water, and the schools. The church exercised a leading and deterministic role in every aspect of his existence.34These things are exactly what we find in Orthodox Greece today, even though communist and socialist regimes tried very hard, lately, to change this strong union between the state and the church. The church’s role, the hymns, the customs, the hospitality, the food, the social events, and the entire way of life in Byzantium can be found in the Greece of today, which is the continuation of the Medieval Greek Empire, the Byzantine Empire. Uprising against the Turk conquerors occurred sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, but it was not until the early nineteenth century that the modern Greek Sate evolved (confined by her allies only on the European side of the Byzantine Empire), commensurate with the decline of the Ottoman Empire. On March 25, 1821, Greeks resumed their march through history again. A revolutionary army composed of patriots from Peloponnesos, Sterea Ellada, and the Aegean Islands began to battle the Turkish armies. Although both sides scored success, the conflict soon reached a stalemate. At the request of the Sultan, the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha invaded Greece, thus allowing for intervention by the three great European powers –France, England, and Russia- on the side of the Greek insurgents.  

However, this foreign intervention was also influenced by the intelligentsia in Western European countries.35The men of letters around the world are always supporting the Greek cause because they know the true historic events and their opinion is objective compared with other people who support the powerful ones and the ones that bribe the most. Learned men who were well-read in Ancient Greek history36A major disadvantage suffered by the World Community, has always been and remains today, it is the lack of knowledge of Byzantine (Greek Medieval) history, which has been pursued by the heterodox West to lower the values and the glory of this Orthodox Empire. Unfortunately, even science has been mobilized to support the lies and the political expediency of some nations, which based their identity on delusions. and were inspired by the heroism of the fighting Greeks and their suffering from the Turkish atrocities, forced their governments to change their policies to a more sympathetic attitude towards the Greek revolutionists, who want their freedom. So, many came to help not only from Europe, but also from United States, that we call them “Philellines” (friends of Greeks). The final military solution came at the Battle of Navarino, in which British, French, and Russian navies decimated a joint Turkish-Egyptian fleet, breaking the Turkish hold on Greece and Europe. The Sultan, after eight and a half years of revolution, recognized Greece as an independent nation with full diplomatic statues. Yet only one part of the mainland and a few islands were freed. It took other wars to maintain the free status that Greece enjoys today, but even now many parts are still under occupation.37The Greek regions that are under occupation today are: North Epirus (under Albania), North Macedonia (under Skopje), North Thrace and Eastern Rumelia (under Bulgaria), Eastern Thrace, Asia Minor, the Islands of Imvros, Tenedos, and Northern Cyprus (under Turkey). This is the historic truth and cannot change

In the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth, the Greek government tried to extend her sovereignty over all adjacent lands inhabited by Greeks for many centuries (since the 10th century B.C. and earlier, according to historic evidences). Greece was euphoric over the success of her armies in the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 and in World War I. In spite of frustrating oppositions between King Constantine and Prime Minister Venizelos, part of Greece had at least been freed and was able to join the “entente” and contribute to the allies’ final victory, thus assuring the country’s good will, which future plans would require. After all these war successes, came and the just ultimate objective of the country, “the Great Idea”.38“The Great Idea”, a historically just and fair aspiration for the nation that civilize the world, was ever in the hearts and minds of the heroic and faithful revolutionists during the war of independence and the Greeks allover the world today, but their “friends” had different plans. Of course, nations do not exist by chance; they have a mission to accomplish. Venizelos lobbied hard at the 1918 Paris peace conference, urgently presenting his views for an expanded Greece not to include all the territories that Medieval Greece had in the 15th century, but to include only the large Greek Communities in Asia Minor (today occupied, Western Turkey). Most important was the real need to protect the Greek population in that part of Asia Minor, which was subjected to harsh treatment by the Turks during World War I.

On May 15, 1919, the Greek army landed on Asia Minor. Over the next two weeks, the Greek occupation spread north and continued. By mid-June 1920, a Turkish nationalist attack on the British position on the Ismid peninsula at the eastern end of the Sea of Marmara gave Greece the chance to demonstrate her military effectiveness. At the request of the allies, Greece sent her troops to their aid. The troops advanced east from their agreed-upon holding line, and occupied an area from the old capital of Bursa, south to Alashehir and east to Ushak. For good measure, in late July, they also mopped up nationalistic forces in Thrace and entered Adrianople (Edirne).

In this optimistic atmosphere, the treaty of Serves was finally signed on August 10, 1920. The Sultan’s representatives had signed the treaty, but Kemal’s nationalists did not agree. This treaty gave the Greeks all that they asked for. Having been obliged at the time by circumstances to sign the Treaty of Serves, subsequently none of the allies ratified it, nor did Turkey. The treaty remained a piece of paper, the contents of which Greece alone celebrated rather optimistically and prematurely. Even though, earlier in December 1920, the Greek army had advanced to Eski Shehir, where it had found stiff resistance and was forced to retire to its former positions. Anticipating the likelihood that events in Asia Minor could go from bad to worse, a conference was called by the allies in London in late February 1921 inviting delegations from Greece and Turkey. It ended in failure because neither the Greeks nor the Turks would budge.

Meanwhile, the French and the Italians took the opportunity to conclude private agreement with the Kemalists in recognition of their mounting strength. In March 1921, the advance was more in earnest, but so was the defense by the entrenched Turkish Nationalists, who were better prepared and equipped like a regular army. Not willing to go backwards, the Greek government decided to go forward against Kemal and Ankara. The army was increased, reinforced, and reorganized. King Constantine arrived in Smyrna in early June 1921. The Greek army again advanced to Eski Shehir and Afyon Karahisar and this time was successful. The principal objective was Ankara and the Greeks convinced themselves that if they could capture this nationalist capital, they would destroy the Turkish resistance and victory would be theirs. On August 14, 1921, the Greek assault began. In an all-out effort they managed to reach the Sakaraya River and the area near Polatli, about 40 miles from Ankara, before the exhausted Greek armies halted in the first days of September 1921.

The casualties on both sides were enormous, but the Turks remained undestroyed. The enemy now counter attacked, and the Greeks fell back to where they started from, at Eski Shehir. They were at a stalemate and low on military hardware and even in food supplies, and their country was in difficult financial straits. A year later, having gathered strength and aided by a supply of arms from Russia, Kemal Pasha began his final offensive at the end of August 1922. Overwhelmed, the Greeks retreated nearly 120 miles and tried to hold their lines. When that failed, the retreat became a rout. The armed forces were evacuated from Chesme, near Smyrna, September 8-14, 1922 and the massive Greek population tried to flee in panic before the avenging Turks. #39 It is estimated that as many as 30,000 civilians lost their lives, and more than a million refugees fled to Greece as the Greek, Armenian, and European quarters were burned to the ground in a huge fire. These refugees joined half a million or so Greeks who had fled earlier. The large Greek presence in the area had lasted nearly three millennia, but it was now substantially at the end. The “Great Idea” was another one of the victims, at least for one more century.40Because prophecies are saying that, <<Pavlin mev crovnou~ mev kairouv~, pavlin dikav ma~ qa\nai>>. Under the terms of the new treaty of Lausanne, signed in June 1923, Turkey kept Eastern Thrace, Constantinople, Bosporus (today’s European Turkey) and the strategic Greek populated islands of Imvros and Tenedos that had been given to Greece under the Treaty of Serves. Greece’s borders with Turkey were (unfairly for Greece) confirmed. Most importantly, the treaty provided for the massive population exchange that became necessary. Unfortunately, the Greek genocide by Turks continued in Constantinople (1955) and in Cyprus (1974).#41 The Greek Civil War (December 1944-January 1945 and 1946-49) was two-stage conflict during, which Greek communists unsuccessfully tried to gain control of Greece. The first stage of the civil war (correctly, kommounistosummoritopovlemo~) began only months before Nazi Germany's occupation of Greece ended in October 1944. The German occupation had been resisted by two principal Greek guerrilla forces, the communist-controlled EAM-ELAS (Ethnikón Apeleftherotikón Métopon-Ethnikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Strátos; "National Liberation Front-National Popular Liberation Army") and the EDES (Ellínikos Dímokratikos Ethnikós Strátos; "Greek Democratic National Army"), which occasionally cooperated in action. After eliminating all of its political and guerrilla rivals except the EDES in early 1944, EAM-ELAS set up a provisional government in the Greek mountains that by implication disowned both the Greek king and his government-in-exile. Upon the German troops' withdrawal from Greece in October, the communists and royalist Greek guerrillas were brought together under British auspices in an uneasy coalition government in Athens. But this government disintegrated a few weeks later, when the communist members of the coalition refused to disband their guerrilla force. A bitter civil war broke out in Athens on December 3, which the British military forces managed to suppress with great difficulty, after EAM-ELAS had overrun virtually all of Greece except Athens and Thessaloniki. The communists accepted defeat and the disbandment of their forces at a conference in February 1945, and a general election was held in Greece in March 1946. The communists and their followers abstained from the voting, however, and a royalist majority was returned. A plebiscite was then held in September 1946 which restored the Greek king to the throne. During 1946 a full-scale guerrilla war was reopened by the communists, who had gone underground. The commitment of defending Greece became too much for Great Britain, and it was taken on by the U.S. government, with the announcement of the Truman Doctrine. Massive military and economic aid from the United States was much needed, for by the end of 1947 the communists had proclaimed a provisional government in the northern mountains. This second communist rebellion lasted until 1949, when the U.S.-supplied and strengthened Greek army managed to clear the rebel centers from the mountainous Greek interior. On October 16, 1949, the Greek communist broadcasting station announced the end of open hostilities, and many of the remaining communist fighters fled the country into neighboring Albania. It is estimated that more than 50,000 combatants died in the conflict, and more than 500,000 Greeks were temporarily displaced from their homes by the fighting. The internecine strife and fierce brutality that characterized the civil war left a lasting legacy of bitterness between segments of the Greek population.


 
In 1939, World War II broke out in Europe and by 1940 most countries of Europe had surrendered and Hitler had the Continent of Europe in his grip. On October 28, 1940 Mussolini decided to take over Greece with an easy victory based on his numbers and mechanized forces. He attacked Greece from Albania. The Greeks with their Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas stood up and said “Ochi” (OXI = No, you shall not pass) and these heroic forefathers of today’s Greeks fought with a will, hurling back the aggressors. The Duce’s divisions were soon pushed back into Albania and for six months were fighting to maintain a hold on the sea-cost, desperately calling for help. When Germany entered the war against Greece with the most powerful army in Europe, the Greeks continued to fight both of these great empires although reason must have told them that their position was hopeless. Beside their British comrades, they continued to resist stubbornly on the Island of Crete.

Finally, Greece fell, but it cost Hitler thousands of his finest youth, and delayed for two months his attack against Russia. German troops ran into the dreadful Russian winter and the Russians imposed such appalling losses that it contributed to the ultimate defeat of Germany.42Germany has not yet paid the indemnities for the war damages that it inflicted to Greece and her citizens. The occupation, great famine, resistance and subsequent liberation of Greece followed, and then came the “December Movement”, in which Greek communists fought their brother Greeks. This civil war (kommounistosummoritopovlemo~) ended in August 29, 1949 with the defeat of communists.#43 England helped Greece first and later, the United States helped with the Marshall plan, which lent Greece to a new era and made her one of the most important allies of the West.

 


III. Historic Perspectives of the Macedonian Problem

During communist rule in Yugoslavia, southern Yugoslavia usurped an ancient Greek name and rewrote history to suit their political agenda. They are now promoting nationalist fervor that could unsettle Greece, Albania, and Bulgaria. At issue is the uneasy land of Macedonia, a geographic rather than political zone that has not been a stable nation-state since the death of Alexander the Great. In the latest cycle of shifting borders, at the end of World War II, the region was carved up among Bulgaria, Greece, and Yugoslavia.

After the war, the new Yugoslavia regime chose to adopt the name of “Socialist Republic of Macedonia” for the southern region of the country. On this point there have been no real arguments as this was essentially an internal administrative arrangement decided upon by a sovereign country, but it proved to be wrong from Greece’s side. After all, the same name “Macedonia” is also in use in Northern Greece and defines the northern geographical and administrative districts of the country since the first millennium B.C.

With the emergence, after World War II, of communist federal Yugoslavia, which proclaimed the existence of, and gave official recognition to a “Macedonian” nation, the issue assumed an entirely new form. Before the War, the Balkan communist parties had decided, under Comintern 44Comintern was renamed as Cominform, the third International Communist Union (The International Association of Communist Parties). instructions,  to fight for the establishment of a unified Macedonia and Thrace within the framework of a Communist Balkan Federation. However, the terms “Macedonians” and “Thracians”, widely used at the time, did not define specific ethnic groups, but covered populations of mainly Bulgarian stock, who inhabited Macedonia and Thrace. A leading part in this movement was played by the Communist Party of Bulgaria under Dimitrov, while the communist parties of Greece and Yugoslavia were obliged to toe the Bulgarian line. In 1935, however, the Soviet need to foment popular fronts in Europe in order to confront fascism, led to the substitution of the unpopular goal of a unified and independent Macedonia and Thrace by the slogan “Equality of treatment of the Slav-Macedonians within the framework of the Greek State”.

In 1924, the Greek Communist Party (KKE) adopted the Comintern policy for a unified Macedonia and Thrace, but in 1935 it called for “equality of treatment” for Slav-Macedonians within the borders of Greece. During the Nazi occupation it implemented its policy in the areas under its control by establishing Slav-Macedonian schools, printing Slav-Macedonian publications and endorsed the establishment of a Slav-Macedonian communist organization known by its acronym as SNOF (Slav-Macedonian National Liberation Front). There is, however, no evidence that during this period the KKE committed itself by signing agreements, which envisaged the creation of a separate “Macedonian State”.

During World War II, in Yugoslav Macedonia, the communist party of Yugoslavia had a very difficult time trying to win over the local communists who had joined the communist party of Bulgaria during 1941-1942 when most of Macedonia was under Bulgarian rule. By 1942, Tito’s partisans had taken control of the situation. The solution adopted at a conference (1943), anticipated a federal structure for post-war Yugoslavia with “Macedonia” figuring prominently as one of its six federated republics.45Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia (and Montenegro), Kosovo, and Vardarska-Skopje (as “Macedonia”). At the same time by official decree a “Macedonian nation” was sanctioned, emerging as one more, the latest, Slavic nationality in the area.

Further, during the time when Yugoslavia actively promoted the Macedonian issue (1945-1948), Bulgaria confined its claims against Greece to the area of Western Thrace (Paris Peace Conference 1946-1947). In this policy, Bulgaria had the support of both the Soviet Union and of Yugoslavia. Following Tito’s excommunication by Stalin in 1948, Bulgaria decided the time had come for her to take a lead on the Macedonian issue as well. As already mentioned, she lost no time in launching a campaign for the establishment of a unified Macedonia within the framework of a Balkan Federation. This implied that Bulgaria was indirectly laying a claim to Greek Macedonia as well. Thus, in the 1950’s, when Bulgaria started internationally promoting the view that the inhabitants of Yugoslav Macedonia were really Bulgarians, she included in this category the few remaining Slavophone citizens of Greece. In the early 1960’s, this policy was somewhat softened. Sofia confined itself to sporadic reference to a “Bulgarian speaking” population living in border regions of Greek Macedonia.

Furthermore, in July 1947, Marshal Tito and the Bulgarian communist leader Georgi Dimitrov met in Bled and agreed to work towards the establishment of a federation. As a result the Bulgarian authorities appointed teachers from Skopje to instruct children in the “Macedonian” language, encouraged the publication of “Macedonian” newspapers, accepted the emergence of a “Macedonian” theater and other such cultural activities (sic). It was obvious that Dimitrov went out of his way to make substantial concessions on the Macedonian issue in return for a firm promise by Tito that Bulgaria would acquire the Bulgarian region to be ceded and that Yugoslavia would support –as she did at the Paris Peace Conference- the annexation by Bulgaria of Greek Western Thrace. 

During the Nazi occupation, the Yugoslav partisans had tried hard to convince the Greek Communist leadership to accept the idea for the cession of Greek Macedonia to a unified Macedonia state within Yugoslavia. Undeterred by their failure to achieve this, they continued to promote the motion of a unified Macedonia throughout the period 1945-1948. The Bulgarian leader, Georgi Dimitrov agreed to the scheme in Bled (1947) as already mentioned. It was also concluded that in the not too distant future Greek Macedonia –as a whole or in part- would be incorporated in the unified Macedonian State.

In July 1948, Yugoslavia became an outcast of the international communist movement. In the aftermath of his rift with the Cominform, Bulgaria sided immediately with Stalin. With regard to Macedonia, however, the reversal of Bulgarian policy was somewhat more gradual while Dimitrov was alive. To start with, the teachers from Skopje were sent packing and the “Macedonian” schools and newspapers were closed. But the concept of a unified Macedonia was not officially denounced. The difference was that now the “undivided Macedonia” became a slogan firmly integrated in the wider plan for a Balkan Communist Federation promoted by the Cominform in its anti-Yugoslav campaign. The implication was that this unified Macedonian Republic –which was endorsed also by the Greek Communist Party (KKE) 46It is obvious that these poor puppets of this communist regime were and unfortunately, they continue to be, betrayers of their own country. They do not believe in any other values except to this wrong communist philosophy. - would be controlled by Sofia and Moscow.

After the defeat of 1949, the leadership of the KKE in exile continued to distinguish the Slav-Macedonians from the Greeks among the ranks of the refuges who had fled to the Communist countries of Eastern Europe, after all these atrocities that they committed for five years to Greece and her citizens. During the early years of its life in exile, the Party maintained separate Slav-Macedonian schools and until 1974 the last page of the party’s newspapers was printed in Slav-Macedonian. It was not until the great bulk of Slav-Macedonians finally migrated to Yugoslavia that the Greek Communist party got rid of this rather unpleasant problem.

In the wake of the establishment of friendly Greco-Yugoslav relations in 1951, Belgrade ceased to promote the unity of Macedonia as a political objective. The societies founded in Skopje by “Aegean Macedonians” were disbanded and their newspaper was closed down. Yugoslavia confined itself to merely demanding that the “Macedonians” living in Greece be granted minority rights. This demand, despite the departure of Slav-Macedonians in 1949, was never forsaken by Belgrade even during the halcyon days of the Tripartite Balkan Pact (1954) between Athens, Belgrade, and Ankara. The conclusion is that after the turbulence of the decade 1940-1950, the three sections of Macedonia devoted themselves in the healing of their wounds and pursuing with peaceful inquiries such as political, economic, and social evolution of the countries to which they belonged.

It saw only in 1955, after Khrushchev’s visit to Belgrade, that a major change took place in relations between the Soviet Union and Yugoslavia. Polemics ended and Bulgaria followed suit, stopping the anti-Yugoslav propaganda over Macedonia. But in 1957, Tito condemned the Soviet invasion of Hungary in 1956 and the Bulgarians did not miss the opportunity to accuse Belgrade of trying to turn the people of the Vardar valley into Serbs while maintaining that these “Macedonians” were really Bulgarians. Such bitter polemics lasted up to 1961, during which year a new rapprochement took place between Moscow and Belgrade while the 22nd Congress of the Communist Party of the USSR was being prepared. Khrushchev visited both Belgrade and Sofia within the space of a few months. In the wake of these visits Sofia’s policy with regard to the Macedonian question reverted almost to that of 1955 with one significant exception. The inhabitants of the Pirin area were never re-baptized as “Macedonians”.

Since 1963, all references to Greek Macedonia and its present inhabitants stopped altogether. In the bilateral negotiations of 1964, which led to a complete normalization of relations between Greece and Bulgaria and the final settlement of all issues arising out of the war, the Bulgarian side solemnly declared that it had no claims on Greek territory. This policy remained unchanged during the period of the dictatorship (1967-1974). After the restoration of parliamentary democracy in Greece and on the occasion of meetings between Karamanlis and Zivkov, the Bulgarian leader made it repeatedly clear in public, that his country had no claims regarding Greece either on territory or with respect to minorities. This is particularly the context within which relations with the new Greek governments are being promoted.

After 1976, Belgrade and Skopje launched a vociferous campaign against the Bulgarians, accusing them of persecuting minorities and of coveting Yugoslav territories. By the end of 1977 Bulgaria discreetly briefed foreign observers on her policies on the issue, always insisting that she had no territorial claims against any of her neighbors. She also intimated that such false accusations as were leveled against her by Belgrade would not be tolerated indefinitely. This campaign reached its climax with President Zivkov’s speech in Blagoevgrad (July 1978), in which the Bulgarian leader publicly proposed to Tito that the two countries sign an agreement on the issue pledging themselves not to raise any territorial claims against each other. This proposal was rejected by Yugoslavia while the verbal onslaught against Bulgaria for her treatment of the “Macedonian” minority in Pirin continued unabated. In response to this attitude, Bulgaria’s policy stiffened. Instead of merely rejecting Belgrade’s accusations, the Bulgarians launched a campaign to inform international public opinion on the merits of their case. Until Tito’s death (May 1980), the dispute continued in the open with mutual recriminations on every conceivable level (press, politics, science, history, diplomacy, etc.).

From 1975 on, a significant shift of emphasis became evident. Not only public criticism against Greece for not recognizing a “Macedonian minority” was on the increase, but once again, a press campaign went as far as to allege ill treatment of “Macedonians” by the Greek authorities. Numerous books on the subject were published in Skopje and in 1978 the Secretary of the Communist Party of Yugoslav Macedonia thought it proper to openly criticize Greece to foreign journalists. Party documents of this period, including resolutions of various congresses, especially in Yugoslav Macedonia, insisted on the need for the rights of the “Macedonian minority” to be guaranteed in Bulgaria, Greece, and Albania. As a result of the strong Greek response by all major political parties, and in view of the increasingly venomous dispute with Bulgaria on this subject, the Yugoslav press reduced polemics concerning a nonexistent minority in Greece. Occasionally, however, new flare ups occur, which should be mainly attributed to internal pressures within the Yugoslav federation.

Beside internal political considerations, the policy was common to Skopje and Belgrade. Yugoslavia’s Macedonian policy aims at promoting abroad the notion of a separate, distinct and well defined “Macedonian” nation on the cultural level. It is for this reason that Belgrade always insisted on the participation of representatives from the “Socialist Republic of Macedonia” when cultural agreements were signed with any country. It was for this reason that Belgrade was financing chairs and conferences or seminars on the “Macedonian” language in foreign universities, publishing a large number of books and trying to organize as many visits to Skopje by foreign leaders as it possibly could, so as to promote some kind of “de facto” recognition of Yugoslav Macedonians as a distinct nation. 47But, with all this groundless propaganda, these people in Skopje live in a delusion and they try with all their means to pass this historic lie by carrying on all possible anti-scientific efforts to the rest of the world, so they can satisfy their poor citizens with the creation of a pseudo-identity for their artificial Slavo-Bulgaro-Albanian state, which has no relationship with Macedonians or Alexander the Great. It is awful an entire state to be based on a big lie! Our objective must be only the absolute truth.
   

Greek policy on the Macedonia question has been fairly consistent. Greece has no territorial claims and makes no demands concerning the fate of any Greek minority in the Macedonian regions of Yugoslavia and Bulgaria.48Of course, this is absolutely wrong, as Kostas Sardelis (1991, pp. 29-30) says, Greece’s northern borders are cut with scissors from the one end to the other. There are still thousands of Greeks in Serbian “Macedonia” [Bulgaria, North Epirus, even in Russia] who methodically have been forced to become Slavs and the Greek governments have never raised a minority question concerning them. But she does not accept the existence of a “Macedonian” minority on her territory either, particularly after the mass exodus of Slavs in the inter-war years and in 1944-1949. As far as the Yugoslav views on the Macedonian question are concerned, the Greeks cannot recognize the existence of a “Macedonian” nation. They insist on this line for the simple reason, that “Macedonian” is an ancient Greek name, which in modern times has become a purely geographic term, in constant use in Greece as well. Any attempt to appropriate it for defining exclusively a newly-constructed Slav nationality is bound to meet with strong Greek objections. If another name had been adopted, there would be no difficulty in accepting the emergence of one more Slav ethnic group in Yugoslavia as separate from the others.

The Macedonian Question in the 1980s was a political dispute between Yugoslavia and Bulgaria, in which Greece was only indirectly involved. The fact that Yugoslavia tried to involve Greece by raising the issue of a non-existent minority should be attributed mainly to Belgrade’s tactical maneuvering and has nothing to do with realities in Greek Macedonia. Yugoslavia’s occasional criticisms of Greece could be interpreted as an evenly balanced policy towards all occupiers of “Macedonians”, be they Bulgarians, Greeks or Albanians. In addition to this, the need to counteract internal centrifugal trends in a country with so many nationalities, made it imperative for Belgrade to be seen to cater openly and publicly to each one’s particular national aspirations. Of course, we saw what happens after the fall of the communism.49Yugoslavia, with the “help” of the West, was divided between 1991 and 2008 into seven states: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and Skopje (Vardarska). Certainly in so doing, it often gave Greece good cause for offense. Fully aware of these internal problems and motives, the Greek side refrained, as best as it could, from aggravating the situation by indulging in public invective, unless openly provoked.

Unfortunately, EU (where Greece is a member since 1981) does not have a European foreign policy and a security policy; it is divided into small powerless member-states and is manipulated; presently by the U.S. and later will be by some other power. A main example can be the Yugoslavia case, which has created serious other problems; like, the Kosovo,50Kosovo said the IMF voted to accept it as a member, a major but unfair step to global recognition of this Serbian region as an independent state. See, The Wall Street Journal, May 6, 2009, pp. A1 and A8. On November 2, 2009, Albanians in Kosovo made the unveiling of a statue of Bill Clinton, who invaded Serbia in 1990s and gave Kosovo to Albanians that abused the Serbian hospitality. If this is justice, what can be the absolute injustice? TV News ALTER, November 2, 2009. the Great Albania, Muslim countries in Balkans, and the famous “Macedonia Question”, with the arrogant Slavs of the South former Yugoslavia, Vardarska, having expansive prospects towards Greece, the true Macedonia.51See, Kallianiotis (1992)  This artificial nation is constituted by 800,000 Albanians, 500,000 Bulgarians, 100,000 Serbs, 100,000 Gypsies, 250,000 Greeks, and 300,000 Muslims of various nationalities. How can this mixture call itself as “Macedonians”?52See, Giavnnh C. Kouriannivdh, <<Tov Makedonikov, tov Politikov Katesthmevno kai; tov Patriwtikov Kivnhma>>, e-grammes.gr, November 4, 2007. The most amazing was the alliance of Skopje with the enemies of Greece. Delegation from Skopje (Vardarska) went to North Cyprus (pseudo-state of Turks) to celebrate with these conquerors of the Greek Cyprus. Unfortunately, supporters of the enemies of Greece became their north “friends”, the pseudo-“Macedonians”. This is a Sacrilegious or Unholy Alliance (ajnivero~ summaciva) among the enemies of the Hellenic Orthodox civilization and its only true values.53TV News ERT, November 17, 2007. Of course, there will be no future of this fabrication! “Europe was felt, too, to have failed in its handling of the Yugoslav question, which it saw virtually taken out of its hands by American intervention at the end of 1995, and the deployment of NATO’s forces as peace-keepers in a way unanticipated by its founders. There were still then, therefore, major obscurities over the future of European integration.” 54See, Roberts (1997, p. 652). Since, for more than half a century, the United States has been pursuing a grand imperial strategy with the aim of staking out the globe. The U.S. leaders have shown themselves willing to follow the dream of dominance no matter how high the risks. Their politics are of global control –from unilateralism to the dismantling of international agreement to state terrorism- cohere in a drive for hegemony that ultimately threatens our existence.55See, Chomsky (2004).

It is well known and provable that, the name of the province of Skopje (currently and wrongly, FYRM) was “Vardarska or Vardar with capital Skoplye”.56See, Encyclopedia SOPENA-Nuevo Diccionario Ilustrado de la Lingua Espanola, Barcelona, 1936, pp. 980-981. There is nowhere the word “Macedonia”. During the German occupation the name of the region was “Banovina Vardarska”. But, Tito, in August 15, 1944, gave to this province the name “Makedonija”. Today, the true history is falsified and delineated.57See, Kallianiotis (1992, pp. 58-59) for the names of the people of this region: “Vardarians or Dardanians or Sclavinians”, but never “Macedonians”.  If we do not teach the true history, in a few years no one will know anything about the historical truth. The new generations will learn only what serves the future plan of this suspicious global injustice.58See also, e-grammes.gr/November 13, 2007. Lately, in December 2007, the little state of Skopje started an embargo for the Greek products because on the boxes it was written “FYRM” and the customs, there, return them back to Greece by saying that “there is no state with this name, return to sender”.59That was the reaction of this artificial nation, which is using illegally the Greek name “Macedonia” for its name. Greece must have put an embargo since 1991 and to continue it until they will change their name. Of course, the trend is that this state very soon will be part of Albania. This is the choice of the dark powers. See, e-grammes.gr, << [Aschma neva ajpov tav Skovpia>>, December 14, 2007. Also, the U.S. through “NATO pressed Greece to let Macedonia join the alliance.” 60The Wall Street Journal, March 7, 2008, p. A1. But the reason is that Skopje usurps the Greek name “Macedonia” and the Greek history and symbols, which can be used only by Greece for her north geographical region and not by any other nation. They are, actually, thieves of Greece identity. This is a very serious crime and the international community must be informed and isolate the robbers of history. Of course, Greeks have the right and the obligation not to allow Skopjeans encroachers to use the Hellenic name Macedonia for their artificial state.61"The most significant post-Yugoslav change in the myth of descent was the attempt to include the ancient Macedonians in the national narrative. This effort was clearly related to Greek opposition against the name Macedonia for the new state as well as against the use of the 16-pointed sun of Macedonia, associated with Philip II of Macedonia, as the state symbol. Macedonian historians challenged Greece's exclusive ownership of the symbols and territory of the ancient Macedonians in order to back up their claims to the name and land of Macedonia and to create their own ancient national patrimony. In his introduction to Nade Proeva's Studies on the Ancient Macedonians, Petko Kuzman wrote,“Macedonian history cannot be treated otherwise than as a historical continuity from the creation of the name Macedonia until today.” This discourse is intended to substantiate the Macedonians’ claim to a homeland, to the territory of their ancestors, and to a long national pedigree. The landscape of Macedonia is instilled with ethnic virtues reaching far back into the past that can be mobilized in current disputes over claims to a particular territory. Significantly, the first volume of the revised seven-volume History of the Macedonian People devotes more than two hundred pages to ancient Macedonia and the Roman occupation, while the first edition, published in 1969, allocated only some twenty pages to that period. The main claim is that the ancient Macedonians were not Greeks but a different, non-Hellenic people who joined in the ethnogenesis of the Macedonian people by melting into the Slavs who had come to the region in the 6th and 7th centuries." 

Unfortunately, on February 17, 2008, Albanians in Kosovo, with the support from the U.S. and the EU declared independence in Kosovo/Metohija without the UN approval. This is the worst humanitarian crisis in the 21st century and is going to spread to the entire region. A new Balkan war is smoldering and the hope of the people of the region is God and their Russian brothers. This is the plan of the “dark powers” for a very long time and their followers and subalterns (U.S.A. and EU) are committing this unique crime.62TV News MEGA, ALPHA, ALTER, February 17, 2008. “Kosovo and Metohija was and must remain an integral part of Serbia, in accordance to the Chapter of the United Nations, Security Council Resolution 1244, as well as according to all relevant international conventions on human rights, the rights of peoples and on the inviolability of internationally recognized borders.” (Holy Synod of Bishops, February 18, 2008). United States is against Muslims allover the world, except the Muslim Albanians in Kosovo, in Albania, and in Skopje.63Switzerland had a referendum on Novemeber 29, 2009, to ban the construction of minarets on mosques and 58% voted in favor of the minaret ban. (The Wall Street Journal, December 2, 2009, pp. A1 and A12). Amazing inconsistent politics! The EU was split, with Rumania, Cyprus, Spain, and several other EU countries condemning Kosovo’s secession as illegal. Unfortunately, 17 of the EU’s 27 nations, including Germany, France, Britain, and Italy, said they would recognize Kosovo.64Switzerland had a referendum on Novemeber 29, 2009, to ban the construction of minarets on mosques and 58% voted in favor of the minaret ban. (The Wall Street Journal, December 2, 2009, pp. A1 and A12). Also, Croatia, Hungary, and Bulgaria said they would accept Kosovo independence.65The Wall Street Journal, March 20, 2008, p. A1. This was expected because Croatia and Hungary have territorial claims against Serbia, but the Orthodox Bulgaria doing it is surprising. Unfortunately, Bulgaria is going always with the powerful ones (Germans, Americans, EU, and not with what is right or legal). The amazing is that a U.N. court acquitted Kosovo’s ex-premier of war crimes during the 1998 battle to take over Kosovo, the cradle of Serbia, from Serbs, where it belongs.66See, The Wall Street Journal, April 2, 2008, p. A1 The worst so far was that, Kosovo Serbs were kidnapped in 1999 and taken to Albania to have their organs harvested, a former chief prosecutor said at The Hague.67See, The Wall Street Journal, April 12-13, 2008, p. A1 Where are the justice and the international law that these international institutions must preserve? Everything is subjective and unjust in this falling world of politically correctness.68The followers of lies wanted to legalize and impose their delusion to all human beings by invented the term “politically correct” for covering all their wrong doings (politically correctabsolutely wrong). Americans, already, started advertising vacations in Kosovo as, “Europe’s unlikely charmer, for travelers willing to forgo some luxuries, newly independent Kosovo offers breathtaking mountains, unspoiled medieval architecture and stunning monasteries”.69The author writes: “The newest nation on earth is Kosovo, the war-ravaged region of the former Yugoslavia. … At the foot of the breathtaking mountains ringing Kosovo lie two magnificent Greek Orthodox monasteries designated as Unesco World Heritage sites. … Most Kosovars will look at you warily-until you tell them you are from the U.S., which led the bombing of the rampaging Serbian forces in 1999. Pristina, the capital, has a Bill Clinton Street and a Robert Dole Street.  … Pristina is Kosovo’s drab capital, whose name refers not to an era of abundant street cleaners, but rather to the ancient king of the Ilyrians, the ancestors of Kosovo’s ethnic Albanians. (sic)” See, The Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2008, pp. W1-W12. The lies, the propaganda, and the false identity for the conquerors Albanians continue by this poor western writer (Stan Sesser). This is the problem of the unreliable West, they try to rewrite history to justify their crimes against humanity. Actually, nothing is Albanian and Muslim, there. Then, how the “democratic”, “fair”, and “just” west committed this crime against Serbs? The traditional Europe is disappearing day by day with all these anti-humane actions. For example, two brothers from Kosovo were convicted of running a drug ring that supplied half of Western Europe’s heroin.70See, The Wall Street Journal, October 31, 2008, p. A1. Also, Serbia arrested 10 former Kosovo Albanian guerrillas suspected of involvement in killings and abductions in 1999. 71See, The Wall Street Journal, December 27-28, 2008, p. A1. The next major problem with Albanians will be Greece and Skopje. This artificial state (Skopje) has almost been occupied by Albanians and the Great Albania (the dream of Austria and of the rest of the west) is a reality. Greece has so far received more than one and a half (1,500,000) millions, illegal mostly, Albanians, who create daily problems (robberies, assassinations, rapes, drugs, mafia, and others) and the Greek government is doing nothing. A report from CIA states that “the continuing migration of Albanians to Greece creates serious problem to the country”.72See, Voanerges, Issue 39, September-October 2008, p. 95.    

The U.S. continues its cold war against Russia and tries to make members of NATO all the previous members of the Soviet Socialist Republics. Putin warned that Russia could aim nuclear weapons at Ukraine if it joins NATO and accepts U.S. antimissile defenses.73The Wall Street Journal, February 13, 2008, p. A1.The Wall Street Journal, February 13, 2008, p. A1. Russia is against the declaration of independence of Kosovo by the Muslim Albanians, which are supporting by the U.S.A. and the EU. Russia’s Dmitry Medvedev (the leader after Putin) visited Serbia and signed a pipeline deal, a signal that his foreign policy will follow Putin’s policy towards Europe and their spiritual brothers in Balkans.74See, The Wall Street Journal, February 26, 2008, pp. A1 and A4. In a NATO summit in Bucharest, Romania, on April 2, 2008, Croatia and Albania were accepted as its new members. Greece vetoed Skopje’s entrance to NATO because of it irreconcilability by using the Greek name “Macedonia” for its new and without identity nation and the Greek symbols and history. Three other EU nations (France, Spain, and Italy) were supporters of Greece’s just rights. President Bush came out disappointing from this outcome because he was a strong supporter of Skopje’s membership to NATO and also after the veto that Germany and France put against Georgia’s and Ukraine’s membership.75U.S. has built a military base in Kosovo of 10,000 m2 and it is building another one in Skopje and for this reason it wants to accept these new “anti-Balkan” nations in NATO. See, TV News MEGA and ALTER, April 2, 2008. Also, The Wall Street Journal, April 2 and 3, 2008, pp. A1 and A8 and A1 and A7.  Many people are questioning the role of NATO today, after the end of the cold war. The Wall Street Journal, April 2, 2008, p. A13.  Furthermore, President Nicolas Sarkozy made a case that his country might rejoin NATO’s military structures, but he put some conditions. Among them, France must maintain freedom to decide whether to send troops to an operation and NATO would not compete with the European Union’s defense plans.76In 1966, President Charles de Gaulle withdrew France from NATO’s military command as he sought to reassert France’s independence from the U.S. (The Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2008, pp. A1 and A8). In addition, Gates told NATO allies that they will be expected to share the cost of a planned expansion of the Afghan army.77The U.S. tries to enforce the payments of its costly and deadly mistakes, policing the world, on its poor NATO allies. (The Wall Street Journal, September 20-21, 2008, pp. A1 and A11).

Finally, after the dissolution of Yugoslavia nothing is the same in Balkans anymore, but the so called “Macedonian question” would have died at its birth if Greece had hurried to inform international public opinion with the historic scientific truth. Greece did not do this from superficiality or because it suited the politics of her “allies” in Balkans or because she was certain that the world could not accept this falsification of history. This was a major mistake on the part of Greece and as we can see during the last few years, the Skopje propaganda has transferred its chair to West Europe, United States, Canada, Australia, and other countries and it still continues its criminal tactics against Greece and the science of history.


IV. Epilogue and Historic Inferences

The role of Hellenism is historic and humanistic –and as time passes the vast majority of people will realize it- because it was able many times in the past to re-orientate humanity. Hellenism is a global movement of ancient moral philosophy combined with the revealed truth of Christianity, the Holy Orthodoxy. Its advantage exists in the adoption of the moderation, the spiritual, the eternal, and the truthful, and at the same time in the rejection of the exaggeration, the materialistic, the transitory, and above all the bold lie. How many today understand this unique culture, which is called the Hellenic Orthodox Culture ( JEllhnorqovdoxo~ Paideiva)? The race, which possesses this culture, has the unique ability to reach the highest accomplishments and surpass the pathless degeneration of the human civilization left behind in every historic period. The universal ideas of Hellenism constitute an inexhaustible source of alternating everlasting values. The principles of Hellenism that have changed the intellectual trends of humanity throughout history, have been born to this small geographical region, which for three thousand years obstinately resists the undermining efforts of the “civilized” world and the hordes of barbarians. One representative of this race is Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Greek commander of the army who civilized the world and refined and united Hellenism.

As we have mentioned above, the name “Macedonia” was given by Tito and was used for this Yugoslav democracy only since 1945, but it was identified for many centuries with Greek civilization and Greek history. Their neighboring Greeks are reasonably disturbed when the name of Macedonia becomes subject to abuse by a region, which ethnologically is not Greek, but Albanian, Vlach, Serb, Gypsy, Turkish, Slavic, and Bulgarian. It is characteristic and suspicious that the two first countries recognized this new government was Bulgaria and Turkey. The stability of the region would be better served by the denial of recognition or by saying to these people and the entire world the historic truth. Finally, if Skopjeans feel that they are Macedonians, let them open their borders and unite with Greece, then, they will become Greeks and at the end they will be Macedonians.

As Professor Argyrios Varonides has said, “If the Skopje regime really seeks recognition and respect as a democratic state, it needs first to learn how to respect history and not to adopt old faded political arguments of past and collapsed regimes. Do they really want to be Macedonians? Then, they are welcomed with open arms to the Greek culture, which after all has been known, thanks to the Thessalonian brothers Methodios and Kyrillos. Otherwise, they ridicule themselves and become irritating.” Consequently, for someone to become Macedonian, he has, first, to become Greek because the true Macedonians were, are, and will be only Greeks ( {Ellhne~ th`~ Boreivou  JEllavdo~).

It is clear when, objectively examined, that the “Macedonian Question” for Greece cannot exist and the “Macedonian Problem” is a non-issue.78Professor Stephen G. Miller of Berkley University sent a letter to the Archaeology Magazine, where he proves that the region where Skopje is today was Paeonia and Skopjeans have no right to call their nation “Macedonia” and themselves “Macedonians”. See, Christianiki Bibliographia, Issue 42, Year 38, January-March 2009, pp. 21-23. The legal status quo of the northern borders of Greece are determined with international treaties, like the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), which ended the second Balkan War, and the Peace Treaties at the end of the two World Wars, of Neigy (1919) and of Paris (1947). Also, Macedonia is a geographic concept and not an ethnic notion. In fact, only one country can identify herself, for historical reasons, with Macedonia. That country is Greece, which has been inextricably linked with Macedonia for more than 4,000 years.

Greece has no territorial claims against neighboring states even though a vast area of her is still under occupation. She regards all borders, which have been consecrated with international treaties and which have been legalized (ratified) with the Final Act of Helsinsky as inviolable. Considering Greek Macedonia, the ethnological homogeneity of the area renders her un-attackable from the various claims that have appeared in the past with the pretext of minority demands. It is natural, for someone to consider the existence of this problem and in the long-run it can include risks, which are possible to involve, the sensitive area of Balkan, into new tribulations. For this reason, Greece looks positively to every effort, which tends to reduce this formerly intense dispute peacefully and hopefully the international community will assist her.

For these reasons, Greece has opposed the recognition of an independent nation on her northern border, which will bear the Hellenic name “Macedonia”. Of course, this does not mean that Greece is against the Skopjeans right to establish their own independent nation and have their own language, history, and traditions. All people have the right to self-determination of their future, of course, this choice is confined within the limits of international law (or legality). Greece, however cannot accept the use of the Macedonian name by any nation, which is in all other respects Slavic. The terms “Macedonia-Macedonians” and names of similar relevance belong to Hellas and Hellenes (Greece and Greeks). They constitute Greece’s national and cultural inheritance and as such have been recorded in history for many centuries before the appearance of Slavs in the area of Balkans and especially in the area of Macedonia.

Large sections of countries that dream the non-existent historically “Aegean Macedonia” were historically under Greek control and those countries that transgress against Greece today are “inhospitable of the history”. Greeks will never cease, as the Greek race to claim their lost national lands. It is their national duty to state matters concerning Greek Macedonia, both inside and outside of Greece, exactly as they are to restore the historical truth that expediency, and misguided and calculating interest continue to counterfeit and distort. It is necessary for the preservation of their unique Greek Orthodox Culture, that every one be in good conscience and that Greece permanently “guard Thermopylae”. This duty must not be the subject of a transient alert or mobilization, but the constant care of the current and future citizens of the historic country, Hellas.

The fact, that the ancient Macedonians belong to the world of Greeks, is very difficult to dispute any longer. The new archeological treasures in connection with linguistic analyses and the findings of a great number of new inscriptions –all Greek– with rich samples of Greek names prove that there is no discontinuation of either cultural or linguistic of the unity of the Macedonians with the rest of the Greeks.79There will be a series of articles by the author examining the Macedonian question from these perspectives. Also, the spreading of the Greek language and the Greek civilization and culture to the entire known world from the Macedonians of the Alexander the Great constitutes the most categorical confirmation of this event. This event is confirmed every year by the new archeological findings that are coming to light either at the large excavations of Pella, Vergina, Dion, and Sindos, or in dozens less known, like in areas of Voion, Aeani, Kozani, Kastoria, Florina, Edessa, Aridaea, Kilkis, Kavala, and of course, Thessaloniki and Chalkidiki (Petralona), and others.

Greece, every Greek, and every one who has an objective knowledge of history are opposed to Skopje’s name as “Macedonia”. Skopje’s peoples are not properly a distinct nation, but belong, by language and culture, to one or another, or perhaps all three of the neighboring Slavic states (they have nothing in common with Hellenic Macedonians). Recognition of Skopje as “Macedonia” is historically, scientifically, and morally wrong. Skopjean propaganda in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and other papers around the world is unconscionable, constant, and provocative.80The question here is, why are these papers and the majority of the other news media that determine public opinion so biased? How can we trust their subjective news and their prejudice information? Of course, in academics, we have to search only for the truth and nothing else.  If Skopje were to give up the policy of misappropriating the term “Macedonians”; if she were to adopt, for instance, another term, (such as “Vardarians” or “Dardanians” or “Sclavinians”)81These names have been used in the past for the inhabitants of Skopje and as toponyms of that region. The ancient Macedonians annexed Paeonia, but they never annexed the region around Scupi (Skopje), which belonged to Dardania. The historically correct name for Skopje, then, is Dardania. The name of the province of Skopje (currently and wrongly, FYRM) was “Vardarska or Vardar with capital Skoplye”. See, Kallianiotis (1992, pp. 58-59). in order to designate the Slav inhabitants of Yugoslav Macedonia and possibly certain émigré groups who share her views; the Greeks, naturally, would have no quarrel with this state of affairs.

Nevertheless, despite differences on these issues, Greek-Serbian relations are positively on many domains as both sides realize the mutual benefits of good, friendly, and cooperative and neighborly relations. But both nations realized that Skopje has been put between Greece and Serbia by other powers, which are against these two homodox nations. Greeks, Serbians, Bulgarians, Russians, Rumanians, and all the other Eastern European nations have something in common that is not common to this world, we cannot find it anywhere else. They are “brothers in Christ”, Christian Orthodox nations. We hope that Skopje will realize its historic and anti-scientific mistake and go back to its true name, “Vardarska”. After the collapse of communism, the cosmos awaits these peoples’ contribution to its history and Greece can play once more an important role in their re-Christianization and promotion of peace and prosperity in the Balkans.

Footnote΄s

1    See, Jones (1997).
2    See, Kebric (1997) and Kitto (1987).
3    See, Marchant and Todd (1997)
4    See, Pedley (1998).
5    But, at the same time, Hellas faces a lot of opposition from heretics (heterodoxs) and other religions (allodoxs) because of her traditional Orthodoxy and her Hellenic paideia.
6    With their wisdom, like: “Moderation in all things” (Pa`n mevtron a[riston), they set the foundations and advanced the world.
7    See, Davies (1998, p. 95).
8    Hellenes had the same blood, the same language, and the same religion (o{maimon, oJmovglwsson kai; oJ-movqrhskon), according to Herodotus ( JHrovdoto~), 5th century B.C. See, Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179).
9    See, Roberts (1997, p. 43).
10   See, Roberts (1997, p. 47).
11   See, Homer’s Iliad.
12   The European civilization was a Hellenic-Orthodox civilization up to the 9th century A.D., before its barbaric invasions from West and North. See, Sakarellos (2005).
13   See, Jones (1997), Kebric (1997), Vasiliev (1980), and Paparrigopoulos (2003).
14   See, Blum, Cameron, and Barnes (1970, p. 4).
15   See, Vranopoulos (1995, p. 168).
16   Unfortunately, in 1920, Greeks faced a dreadful genocide and unlawful expulsion from their ancestral homeland by Kemal pasha (a hospitable of history from Mongolia), after living in this region for 3,000 years.   
17   This is the Greek language (oJmovglwsson), a unique instrument of communication, used in sciences (mostly, in medicine, computers, etc.), and in arts.
18   Of course, Greek philosophers in the 5th century B.C. doubted about these gods and introduced the “Unknown God”, for whom they built a temple.
19   Completely different of what we see today with illicit antagonism, drugs, exercise of power among nations, millions of dollars involvements, and by taking  the modern Olympic Games out from the country of their origin (Olympia in Greece).
20   For example, the most common sanctuaries were in Olympia, Delphi, Dodoni (or Dodona), etc. See also, Elizabeth R. Gebhard, The Evolution of a Pan-Hellenic Sanctuary: From Archaeology towards History at Isthmia (This article originally appeared in Greek Sanctuaries, New Approaches (1993, pp.154-177), and is made available electronically with the permission of the editors.)
21   In 490 B.C., with the victorious battle of Marathon and the battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) with the sacrifice of Leonidas (300 Spartans, 700 Thespeans, and 200 Thebeans); Athenians and the other Greek states repelled Persian invasions and Athens assumed leadership of Greek alliance. A year later (479 B.C.), the battle of Salamis was Athenians’ greatest naval victory and the same were the battles of Plataea and Mycale.
22   Socrates (469-399 B.C.) was sentenced in Athens to drink hemlock for “introducing strange gods” (kainav daimovnia), when actually he was teaching about the “Unknown God” (the True God). This person, the wisest man in human history was saying: “All I know is that I know nothing” ( {En ei\da o{ti oujdevn ei\da). Socrates, his disciple (student) Plato and Plato’s own disciple Aristotle (the teacher of Alexander the Great) laid the foundations of most branches of all disciplines. Greek science was simply a branch of their general moral and ethical philosophy. There is no possibility that something good can come from corrupted people. [It is absolutely wrong to accuse ancient Greeks as immoral without any proofs, as Davies (1998) is doing it easily.] With the coming of Christ, the nation was the first to accept Him as the expected “Unknown God”. This is exactly what we call “Hellenic-Orthodox civilization”, a combination of the ancient moral and ethical Hellenic philosophy with the revealed Truth (Orthodox Christianity). Xenophon, a disciple of Socrates, too, is the “Father of Economics” (Oeconomicos=Oijkonomikov~). The word “nomisma” (novmisma), meaning coin, was used by Greeks, also specialization, futures contracts, and many other terms used in Economics today. According to Herodotus, money, in the sense of coinage (drachmas), began to circulate in the Aegean in the early 7th century B.C. [The island of Aegina, also, participated in the early days of coinage (silver coins since 670 B.C.), the first money in Europe. Then, coins were minted in Athens, Corinth, Euboea, Syracuse, and other Greek city-states and their colonies.  See, Davies (1998, p. 101).] In addition, Greek history-writing had its triad of giants. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484-420 B.C.) is the “Father of History”, Thucydides (455-401 B.C.) the Athenian and Xenophon (428-354 B.C.) the Athenian, are great historians, too. (Back)
23   Because as Hellenes, all these city-states had the same blood, the same language, and the same religion (o{maimon, oJmovglwsson kai; oJmovqrhskon), according to Herodotus ( JHrovdoto~), 5th century B.C. and many other similarities as Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179) refers them.
24   There are many tribes in Asia today that they claim of being descendants of Greeks, since that time of Alexander, like the Kallas in northern Iran.
25   From 404 to 338 B.C. hegemonies of Sparta, Thebes, and Macedonia (area of Northern Greece) appeared. From 359-336 B.C., the reign of Philip of Macedonia took place. From 338-323 B.C. Alexander the Great conquered the entire Asia; he went to India and Africa, too. The Old Persian Empire, which had invaded Greece many times in the past, was overrun by the Greek-Macedonians. In 322 B.C., Greek-Macedonians took over Athens and overturned the Athenian democracy. From 323 to 272 B.C., Alexander’s successors sought domination and the Hellenistic Kingdoms were created in Greece and the rest of the Empire – of Macedonia (with Antigonus), of Egypt (with Ptolemy), [The tomb of Alexander the Great was discovered by the Greek archeologist Liana Souvaltzi. See, Souvaltzi (2002).] and of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Iran (with Seleucus). “Under the sponsorship of Alexander’s Empire and the Hellenistic Kingdoms that succeeded it, Greek culture spread over the whole Mediterranean world, and in the first century B.C. achieved a thorough intellectual conquest of the imperial Roman republic, its military conqueror.” [Blum, Cameron, and Barns (1970, p. 10)].
26   Even the Gospels were written in Greek language and with this language the New Religion was spread to the entire known world of that time. This was the language of the Greek King Alexander the Great and his descendants. The non-Greek speaking nations were “barbarians” outside the Hellenic culture and paideia (paideiva). This is the historic truth and not what some pseudo-states anxiously try to distort the science of history.   
27   The proportion of Greeks that are Orthodox is 98% of the population. Someone that is not Orthodox could not be considered Greek, too. This is the homogeneity and uniqueness of these people.
28   See, Vasiliev (1980).
29   The contribution of the three hierarchs (Sts. Vassilios, Grigorios, and Ioannis) is unique in the connection of the ancient Greek moral paideia with the Christian revealed values.
30   <<Sw`son Kuvrie tovn laovn Sou kai; eujlovghson thvn klhronomivan Sou, nivka~ toi`~ basileu`si katav barbavrwn dwrouvmeno~ kai; tovn Sovn fulavtton diav tou` Staurou` Sou polivteuma.>> Hymn chanting on the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross.
31   The same beliefs continue to hold even today in the Greek Orthodox state and the Greeks of Diaspora, who are more than 100 million people of Greek origin spread around the world. This unique culture is inconceivable by any other sub-culture.
32   The problem that Greece is facing today is the dilution of her identity due to millions of Muslims illegal immigrants that Turkey is smuggling into the Greek nation. This is a new Turkish invasion to Greece after the previous one in 1974 in Northern Cyprus.
33   See, Tamara Rice, JO dhmovsio~ kai; ijdiwtikov~ bivo~ tw`n Buzantinw`n, met. F. Bw`ro~, Papazhvsh~,jAqh`nai, s. 94.
34   These things are exactly what we find in Orthodox Greece today, even though communist and socialist regimes tried very hard, lately, to change this strong union between the state and the church. The church’s role, the hymns, the customs, the hospitality, the food, the social events, and the entire way of life in Byzantium can be found in the Greece of today, which is the continuation of the Medieval Greek Empire, the Byzantine Empire.  
35   The men of letters around the world are always supporting the Greek cause because they know the true historic events and their opinion is objective compared with other people who support the powerful ones and the ones that bribe the most.
36   A major disadvantage suffered by the World Community, has always been and remains today, it is the lack of knowledge of Byzantine (Greek Medieval) history, which has been pursued by the heterodox West to lower the values and the glory of this Orthodox Empire. Unfortunately, even science has been mobilized to support the lies and the political expediency of some nations, which based their identity on delusions.
37   The Greek regions that are under occupation today are: North Epirus (under Albania), North Macedonia (under Skopje), North Thrace and Eastern Rumelia (under Bulgaria), Eastern Thrace, Asia Minor, the Islands of Imvros, Tenedos, and Northern Cyprus (under Turkey). This is the historic truth and cannot change. 
38   “The Great Idea”, a historically just and fair aspiration for the nation that civilize the world, was ever in the hearts and minds of the heroic and faithful revolutionists during the war of independence and the Greeks allover the world today, but their “friends” had different plans. Of course, nations do not exist by chance; they have a mission to accomplish.
39   Many Western newspapers reporting gross abuses committed by Turkish forces against Christian, mainly Greek and Armenian civilians. The British historian Tonybee stated that Turkish troops deliberately burned numerous Greek homes, pouring petrol on them and taking care to ensure that they were totally destroyed. There were massacres throughout 1920-1923, the period of the “Turkish War of Independence”, especially of Armenians in the East and the South, and against the Greeks in the Black Sea Region. There was also significant continuity between the organizers of the massacres between 1915–1917 and 1919-1921 in Eastern Anatolia. According to the London based Times: "The Turkish authorities frankly state it is their deliberate intention to let all the Greeks die, and their actions support their statement."# An Irish paper, the Belfast News Letter wrote: "The appalling tale of barbarity and cruelty now being practiced by the Angora Turks is part of a systematic policy of extermination of Christian minorities in Asia Minor." According to the Christian Science Monitor, the Turks felt that they needed to murder their Christian minorities due to Christian superiority in terms of industriousness and the consequent Turkish feelings of jealously and inferiority, The paper wrote: "The result has been to breed feelings of alarm and jealously in the minds of the Turks which in later years have driven them to depression. They believe that they cannot compete with their Christian subjects in the arts of peace and that the Christians and Greeks especially are too industrious and too well educated as rivals. Therefore from time to time they have striven to try and redress the balance by expulsion and massacre. That has been the position generations past in Turkey again if the Great powers are callous and unwise enough to attempt to perpetuate Turkish misrule over Christians." #A Turkish governor, Ebubekir Hazim Tepeyran in the Sivas Province said in 1919 that the massacres were so horrible that he could not bear to report them. He was referring to the atrocities committed against Greeks in the Black Sea region, and according to the official tally 11,181 Greeks were murdered in 1921 by the Central Army under the command of Nurettin Pasha (who is infamous for the killing of Archbishop Chrysostomos). Some parliamentary deputies demanded Nurettin Pasha to be sentenced to death and it was decided to put him on trial although the trial was later revoked by the intervention of Mustafa Kemal. Taner Akcam wrote that according to one newspaper, Nurettin Pasha had suggested to kill all the remaining Greek and Armenian populations in Anatolia, a suggestion rejected by Mustafa Kemal. #According to the newspaper the Scotsman, on August 18 of 1920, in the Feival district of Karamusal, South-East of Ismid in Asia Minor, the Turks massacred 5,000 Christians. As well as massacring Greeks, the Turks also massacred Armenians, continuing the policies of the 1915 Armenian Genocide according to many Western newspapers. There were widespread massacres of Greeks in the Pontus region, which is recognized as the Pontian Genocide. On February 25, 1922, 24 Greek villages in the Pontus region were burnt to the ground. An American newspaper, the Atlanta Observer wrote: "The smell of the burning bodies of women and children in Pontus" said the message "comes as a warning of what is awaiting the Christian in Asia Minor after the withdrawal of the Hellenic army." In the first few months of 1922, 10,000 Greeks were killed by advancing Kemalist forces, according to Belfast News Letter. The Turks continued the practice of slavery, seizing women and children for their harems. Many Turkish soldiers would also rape women. American relief works were also treated with extreme disrespect, even when they were aiding Muslim civilians. Christian Science Monitor wrote that Turkish authorities also prevented missionaries and humanitarian aid groups from assisting Greek civilians who had their homes burned, the Turkish authorities leaving these people to die despite abundant aid. The Christian Science Monitor wrote: "the Turks are trying to exterminate the Greek population with more vigor than they exercised towards the Armenians in 1915." According to a proclamation made in 2002 by the then-governor of New York (where a sizeable population of Greek Americans resides), George Pataki (of Hungarian descent), Greeks of Asia Minor endured immeasurable cruelty during a Turkish government-sanctioned systematic campaign to displace them; destroying Greek towns and villages and slaughtering additional hundreds of thousands of civilians in areas where Greeks composed a majority, as on the Black Sea coast, Pontus, and areas around Smyrna; those who survived were exiled from Turkey and today they and their descendants live throughout the Greek diaspora. A sizable population of Greeks had been forced to leave its ancestral homelands of Ionia, Pontus, and Eastern Thrace between 1914-1922. These refugees, as well as the Greek Americans with origins in Anatolia were not allowed to return after 1923 and the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne. The last part of Kemal's ethnic cleansing campaign to create an ethnically pure homeland for the Turks was the instigation of a forcible transfer of populations uprooting close to a 1.5 million Greeks from Turkey in exchange for less than half a million Muslims from Greece. According to historian Dinah Shelton: "the Lausanne Treaty completed the forcible transfer of the country's Greeks". The most outrageous is that these Muslim barbarians  from  Central Asia have the audacity and demand to become members of the Christian European Union!   ( Back )
40   Because prophecies are saying that, <<Pavlin mev crovnou~ mev kairouv~, pavlin dikav ma~ qa\nai>>.
41   The Greek Genocide 1914-1923 and 1955: During the Greek Genocide in total more than 15,000 Greeks of Constantinople were rounded up and deported. In March 8, 1915, 200 Greeks of Constantinople had been arrested and deported into the interior of Asia Minor, where they were murdered. The March 1915 arrest and deportation of 200 Greeks from Constantinople was a precursor to the April 1915 arrest and deportation of a similar number of Armenians from the same city. In June 1915 Greeks from the districts of Vathikolpos, Caenophrurium, Metres, Selybria were imprisoned in the city. In July 1915 the Greek residents of Sosthenion were all deported with the exception of five families who were exempted on the orders of the Chief-Policeman of Mega Revma. In the same month numerous members of the Greek clergy were imprisoned in the city. Later 200 Greek families of Tatavla were deported into the Interior. In December 1917, the British Legation at Berne affirmed: “Greeks are being daily cleared out of Constantinople and its surroundings and taken to the interior of the country. Their property is seized and their belongings sold by auction. The women and girls are distributed between the German officials and the Moslems of importance. …It is estimated that in Constantinople over 300 Greeks have been enslaved.” The Pogrom of September 1955: The anti-Greek pogrom of September 6-7, 1955 in Constantinople was a systematic act of ethnic cleansing perpetrated against the Greek minority of the city. Acts of ethnic cleansing as perpetrated by the Republic of Turkey are viewed distinctly from the 1914-1923 Greek Genocide. A few scholars, however, have indicated that the 1955 program exhibited characteristics of a genocide program. In a telegram to the U.S. State Department sent on the night of September 6, 1955, the American Consul General in Constantinople reported: “Extensive destruction and situation appears completely out of hand with no evidence of police or military attempt to control. I personally witnessed the looting of many shops while the police stood idly by or cheered on mob.” A British correspondent in the city at the time, reported: “All evidence points to an exact, perfectly coordinated attack. The flame that swept the city was ignited at a hundred different points at precisely the same zero hour.” See, Alexandris (1992), De Zayas (2007), Kaloumenos (2001), Vryonis (2005), and Kyratzopoulos (2006). On March 4, 2010, a congressional panel approved a resolution condemning the 1915 slaughter of Armenians, which put a chill on relations between U.S. and Turkey (The Wall Street Journal, March 5, 2010, pp. A1 and A5). Also, on March 11, 2010, Sweden’s parliament approved a resolution calling the 1915 mass killing of Armenians in   
Turkey genocide. (The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2010, pp. A1 and A15). The Turkish invasion of Cyprus: This “Operation Atilla” launched on 20 July 1974 and it was a Turkish military operation against Cyprus. The Turkish invasion took place in two stages and ended in August 1974, when Turkish troops occupied 37% of the island's territory, which was followed by the establishment of the de facto Turkish pseudo-Republic of Northern Cyprus that only Turkey recognizes, in contradiction of the terms of the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee. Both the United States and NATO supported the idea of a Turkish military intervention. Inter-communal strife that preceded the invasion had brought Greece and Turkey, two NATO allies, to the brink of total war in a number of occasions between 1963 and 1974; the most serious clash was prevented through the last minute mediation of the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson on June 5, 1964. The Greek side blamed the U.S. administration of President Richard Nixon, and in particular Henry Kissinger for supporting Turkey before and during the Turkish military invasion, following a decision by the U.S. National Security Council in May 1974 to bring an end to the Cyprus problem. The Turkish invasion of 1974, the displacement of 180.000 Greek Cypriots from the occupied areas, the thousands of missing, the Turkish atrocities against Greek, the rapes of women and girls and then their murder, the killing of POWs, and many other crimes plus the establishment of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983, form the core issues surrounding the Cyprus dispute. The United Nations Security Council has challenged the legality of Turkey's action, because Article Four of the Treaty of Guarantee gives the right to guarantors to take action with the sole aim of re-establishing the state of affairs. The aftermath of Turkey's invasion, however, did not safeguard the Republic's sovereignty and territorial integrity, but had the opposite effect; such as the de facto partitioning of the Republic in two, the creation of a separate political entity in the north and the forceful expulsion of Greek Cypriots from it. A large number of Turkish Cypriots, many of whom were forced to live in isolated enclaves and ghettoes throughout the island during the inter-communal violence between 1963 and 1974, chose to leave their homes in the south and moved to the north after 1974. The United Nations still recognizes the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus according to the terms of its independence in 1960. The conflict continues to affect Turkey’s relations with Cyprus, Greece and the European Union. ( Back )
42   Germany has not yet paid the indemnities for the war damages that it inflicted to Greece and her citizens.
43   The Greek Civil War (December 1944-January 1945 and 1946-49) was two-stage conflict during, which Greek communists unsuccessfully tried to gain control of Greece. The first stage of the civil war (correctly, kommounistosummoritopovlemo~) began only months before Nazi Germany's occupation of Greece ended in October 1944. The German occupation had been resisted by two principal Greek guerrilla forces, the communist-controlled EAM-ELAS (Ethnikón Apeleftherotikón Métopon-Ethnikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Strátos; "National Liberation Front-National Popular Liberation Army") and the EDES (Ellínikos Dímokratikos Ethnikós Strátos; "Greek Democratic National Army"), which occasionally cooperated in action. After eliminating all of its political and guerrilla rivals except the EDES in early 1944, EAM-ELAS set up a provisional government in the Greek mountains that by implication disowned both the Greek king and his government-in-exile. Upon the German troops' withdrawal from Greece in October, the communists and royalist Greek guerrillas were brought together under British auspices in an uneasy coalition government in Athens. But this government disintegrated a few weeks later, when the communist members of the coalition refused to disband their guerrilla force. A bitter civil war broke out in Athens on December 3, which the British military forces managed to suppress with great difficulty, after EAM-ELAS had overrun virtually all of Greece except Athens and Thessaloniki. The communists accepted defeat and the disbandment of their forces at a conference in February 1945, and a general election was held in Greece in March 1946. The communists and their followers abstained from the voting, however, and a royalist majority was returned. A plebiscite was then held in September 1946 which restored the Greek king to the throne. During 1946 a full-scale guerrilla war was reopened by the communists, who had gone underground. The commitment of defending Greece became too much for Great Britain, and it was taken on by the U.S. government, with the announcement of the Truman Doctrine. Massive military and economic aid from the United States was much needed, for by the end of 1947 the communists had proclaimed a provisional government in the northern mountains. This second communist rebellion lasted until 1949, when the U.S.-supplied and strengthened Greek army managed to clear the rebel centers from the mountainous Greek interior. On October 16, 1949, the Greek communist broadcasting station announced the end of open hostilities, and many of the remaining communist fighters fled the country into neighboring Albania. It is estimated that more than 50,000 combatants died in the conflict, and more than 500,000 Greeks were temporarily displaced from their homes by the fighting. The internecine strife and fierce brutality that characterized the civil war left a lasting legacy of bitterness between segments of the Greek population. (back)
44   Comintern was renamed as Cominform, the third International Communist Union (The International Association of Communist Parties).
45   Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia (and Montenegro), Kosovo, and Vardarska-Skopje (as “Macedonia”).
46   It is obvious that these poor puppets of this communist regime were and unfortunately, they continue to be, betrayers of their own country. They do not believe in any other values except to this wrong communist philosophy.
47   But, with all this groundless propaganda, these people in Skopje live in a delusion and they try with all their means to pass this historic lie by carrying on all possible anti-scientific efforts to the rest of the world, so they can satisfy their poor citizens with the creation of a pseudo-identity for their artificial Slavo-Bulgaro-Albanian state, which has no relationship with Macedonians or Alexander the Great. It is awful an entire state to be based on a big lie! Our objective must be only the absolute truth.
48   Of course, this is absolutely wrong, as Kostas Sardelis (1991, pp. 29-30) says, Greece’s northern borders are cut with scissors from the one end to the other. There are still thousands of Greeks in Serbian “Macedonia” [Bulgaria, North Epirus, even in Russia] who methodically have been forced to become Slavs and the Greek governments have never raised a minority question concerning them.
49   Yugoslavia, with the “help” of the West, was divided between 1991 and 2008 into seven states: Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Serbia, Montenegro, Kosovo, and Skopje (Vardarska).
50   Kosovo said the IMF voted to accept it as a member, a major but unfair step to global recognition of this Serbian region as an independent state. See, The Wall Street Journal, May 6, 2009, pp. A1 and A8. On November 2, 2009, Albanians in Kosovo made the unveiling of a statue of Bill Clinton, who invaded Serbia in 1990s and gave Kosovo to Albanians that abused the Serbian hospitality. If this is justice, what can be the absolute injustice? TV News ALTER, November 2, 2009.
51   See, Kallianiotis (1992).
52   See, Giavnnh C. Kouriannivdh, <<Tov Makedonikov, tov Politikov Katesthmevno kai; tov Patriwtikov Kivnhma>>, e-grammes.gr, November 4, 2007.
53   TV News ERT, November 17, 2007.
54   See, Roberts (1997, p. 652).
55   See, Chomsky (2004).
56   See, Encyclopedia SOPENA-Nuevo Diccionario Ilustrado de la Lingua Espanola, Barcelona, 1936, pp. 980-981.
57   See, Kallianiotis (1992, pp. 58-59) for the names of the people of this region: “Vardarians or Dardanians or Sclavinians”, but never “Macedonians”.
58   See also, e-grammes.gr/November 13, 2007.
59   That was the reaction of this artificial nation, which is using illegally the Greek name “Macedonia” for its name. Greece must have put an embargo since 1991 and to continue it until they will change their name. Of course, the trend is that this state very soon will be part of Albania. This is the choice of the dark powers. See, e-grammes.gr, << [Aschma neva ajpov tav Skovpia>>, December 14, 2007.
60   The Wall Street Journal, March 7, 2008, p. A1.
61   "The most significant post-Yugoslav change in the myth of descent was the attempt to include the ancient Macedonians in the national narrative. This effort was clearly related to Greek opposition against the name Macedonia for the new state as well as against the use of the 16-pointed sun of Macedonia, associated with Philip II of Macedonia, as the state symbol. Macedonian historians challenged Greece's exclusive ownership of the symbols and territory of the ancient Macedonians in order to back up their claims to the name and land of Macedonia and to create their own ancient national patrimony. In his introduction to Nade Proeva's Studies on the Ancient Macedonians, Petko Kuzman wrote,“Macedonian history cannot be treated otherwise than as a historical continuity from the creation of the name Macedonia until today.” This discourse is intended to substantiate the Macedonians’ claim to a homeland, to the territory of their ancestors, and to a long national pedigree. The landscape of Macedonia is instilled with ethnic virtues reaching far back into the past that can be mobilized in current disputes over claims to a particular territory. Significantly, the first volume of the revised seven-volume History of the Macedonian People devotes more than two hundred pages to ancient Macedonia and the Roman occupation, while the first edition, published in 1969, allocated only some twenty pages to that period. The main claim is that the ancient Macedonians were not Greeks but a different, non-Hellenic people who joined in the ethnogenesis of the Macedonian people by melting into the Slavs who had come to the region in the 6th and 7th centuries."
62   TV News MEGA, ALPHA, ALTER, February 17, 2008. “Kosovo and Metohija was and must remain an integral part of Serbia, in accordance to the Chapter of the United Nations, Security Council Resolution 1244, as well as according to all relevant international conventions on human rights, the rights of peoples and on the inviolability of internationally recognized borders.” (Holy Synod of Bishops, February 18, 2008).
63   Switzerland had a referendum on Novemeber 29, 2009, to ban the construction of minarets on mosques and 58% voted in favor of the minaret ban. (The Wall Street Journal, December 2, 2009, pp. A1 and A12).
64   These nations as anti-Orthodox were, are, and will be against Orthodoxy and against Orthodox nations. It is nothing new in the behavior of these heretics. The biggest enemy for Europe has been proven to be so far the European Union. Of course, the 57-country Organization of the Islamic Conference supported the independence of Kosovo, which is predominantly Muslim and they have sent mercenaries fighting against Serbians during 1990s, committing innumerous crimes, but EU and the U.S. ignore all these because of their hatred against Orthodoxy. Turkey and Albania offered formal recognition to this illegal pseudo nation. (The Wall Street Journal, February 19, 2008, pp. A1 and A6). A State Department official said the following outrageous excuse that, “U.S. recognition of Kosovo was an exception to a policy of discouraging secession”.  (The Wall Street Journal, March 13, 2008, p. A1).
65   The Wall Street Journal, March 20, 2008, p. A1. This was expected because Croatia and Hungary have territorial claims against Serbia, but the Orthodox Bulgaria doing it is surprising. Unfortunately, Bulgaria is going always with the powerful ones (Germans, Americans, EU, and not with what is right or legal). 
66   See, The Wall Street Journal, April 2, 2008, p. A1
67   See, The Wall Street Journal, April 12-13, 2008, p. A1
68   The followers of lies wanted to legalize and impose their delusion to all human beings by invented the term “politically correct” for covering all their wrong doings (politically correctabsolutely wrong). 
69   The author writes: “The newest nation on earth is Kosovo, the war-ravaged region of the former Yugoslavia. … At the foot of the breathtaking mountains ringing Kosovo lie two magnificent Greek Orthodox monasteries designated as Unesco World Heritage sites. … Most Kosovars will look at you warily-until you tell them you are from the U.S., which led the bombing of the rampaging Serbian forces in 1999. Pristina, the capital, has a Bill Clinton Street and a Robert Dole Street.  … Pristina is Kosovo’s drab capital, whose name refers not to an era of abundant street cleaners, but rather to the ancient king of the Ilyrians, the ancestors of Kosovo’s ethnic Albanians. (sic)” See, The Wall Street Journal, June 27, 2008, pp. W1-W12. The lies, the propaganda, and the false identity for the conquerors Albanians continue by this poor western writer (Stan Sesser). This is the problem of the unreliable West, they try to rewrite history to justify their crimes against humanity.    
70   See, The Wall Street Journal, October 31, 2008, p. A1.
71   See, The Wall Street Journal, December 27-28, 2008, p. A1.
72   See, Voanerges, Issue 39, September-October 2008, p. 95.
73   The Wall Street Journal, February 13, 2008, p. A1.
74    See, The Wall Street Journal, February 26, 2008, pp. A1 and A4.
75   U.S. has built a military base in Kosovo of 10,000 m2 and it is building another one in Skopje and for this reason it wants to accept these new “anti-Balkan” nations in NATO. See, TV News MEGA and ALTER, April 2, 2008. Also, The Wall Street Journal, April 2 and 3, 2008, pp. A1 and A8 and A1 and A7.  Many people are questioning the role of NATO today, after the end of the cold war. The Wall Street Journal, April 2, 2008, p. A13.
76   In 1966, President Charles de Gaulle withdrew France from NATO’s military command as he sought to reassert France’s independence from the U.S. (The Wall Street Journal, June 18, 2008, pp. A1 and A8).
77   The U.S. tries to enforce the payments of its costly and deadly mistakes, policing the world, on its poor NATO allies. (The Wall Street Journal, September 20-21, 2008, pp. A1 and A11). 
78   Professor Stephen G. Miller of Berkley University sent a letter to the Archaeology Magazine, where he proves that the region where Skopje is today was Paeonia and Skopjeans have no right to call their nation “Macedonia” and themselves “Macedonians”. See, Christianiki Bibliographia, Issue 42, Year 38, January-March 2009, pp. 21-23. 
79   There will be a series of articles by the author examining the Macedonian question from these perspectives.
80   The question here is, why are these papers and the majority of the other news media that determine public opinion so biased? How can we trust their subjective news and their prejudice
 



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"The most significant post-Yugoslav change in the myth of descent was the attempt to include the ancient Macedonians in the national narrative. This effort was clearly related to Greek opposition against the name Macedonia for the new state as well as against the use of the 16-pointed sun of Macedonia, associated with Philip II of Macedonia, as the state symbol. Macedonian historians challenged Greece's exclusive ownership of the symbols and territory of the ancient Macedonians in order to back up their claims to the name and land of Macedonia and to create their own ancient national patrimony. In his introduction to Nade Proeva's Studies on the Ancient Macedonians, Petko Kuzman wrote,“Macedonian history cannot be treated otherwise than as a historical continuity from the creation of the name Macedonia until today.” This discourse is intended to substantiate the Macedonians’ claim to a homeland, to the territory of their ancestors, and to a long national pedigree. The landscape of Macedonia is instilled with ethnic virtues reaching far back into the past that can be mobilized in current disputes over claims to a particular territory. Significantly, the first volume of the revised seven-volume History of the Macedonian People devotes more than two hundred pages to ancient Macedonia and the Roman occupation, while the first edition, published in 1969, allocated only some twenty pages to that period. The main claim is that the ancient Macedonians were not Greeks but a different, non-Hellenic people who joined in the ethnogenesis of the Macedonian people by melting into the Slavs who had come to the region in the 6th and 7th centuries."


In 1948, Cominform, the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, put into action a plan to take hostage to communist countries children from Greece during the Greek civil war. The aim was to re-educate the children as well as blackmail the populace and the Greek government towards reaching a settlement leading to a partition of Greece and the subsequent creation of an internationalist "Macedonian" Republic. This move has favoured by the Yugoslav dictator Josip Broz Tito and had been a Comitern policy aimed at destroying the national states of the Balkans through the creation of internationalist republics. Today several FYROM sources claim........ or at least believe the abducted children were FYROMacedonian.

 

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