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The Deception of the Inexistent Macedonian Question

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The Deception of the Inexistent Macedonian Question

(Linguistic Evidence)

by
Dr. Ioannis N. Kallianiotis
Economics/Finance Department
The Arthur J. Kania School
of ManagementUniversity of Scranton
Scranton, PA 18510-4602
U.S.A.
E-Mail: jnk353(at)scranton.edu


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JEL (Classification): D6, N01

Key Words: Economic Welfare
Economic History


January 2011

 

The Deception of the Inexistent Macedonian Question

(Linguistic Evidence)

 

Abstract

The objective of this paper is to provide some information, a few linguistic evidences, and a scientifically true analysis on the 8,000 years of Hellenic (Greek) history and to examine what the above information means to us and to the civilized world as a whole. We will offer some thoughts, some unshaken historic events, and some linguistic evidence that may help to answer questions concerning today’s conditions in south-eastern Europe, the borders of the old “Christendom” (currently, the controlled European Union). It is imperative that all scholars, politicians, decision makers, students, and intellectual human beings have this information regarding an artificial state (protectorate), Skopje, created recently between Greece and Serbia, because we are responsible for all young people of this planet and we must tell them the plain truth in simple words, away from any expediency, propaganda, and anti-scientific delusion. This new state has unlawfully chosen the Greek name “Macedonia” for its nation and Greece is objecting their aggressiveness and their absurd expansionism. It is historically wrong for them to use Greek names and symbols because they have nothing in common with Greeks; their language is a Bulgarian dialect and their old name was Vardarska.


I. Introduction

Hellenic history, language, culture, and paideia have contributed a great deal to the European and the entire western civilization that we find their seal everywhere, today. The democracy of ancient Greece,1 the accomplishments of her people,2 the great ideas of her moral philosophers,3 scientists and artists,4 and finally, the dramatic events, which have unfolded in the glorious history of the Greek nation because of its geographical position and its persistence in Christian truth have always been a source of creative inspiration to all nations.5 Greece has truly improved mankind and has the responsibility to continue this offer to humanity, especially now, where it is going towards the turbulent last days.

 

The ancient Hellenic civilization is called the “classical” one; later the word “classical” became the source of standards by which subsequent achievements can be measured.6 “There is a quality of excellence about Ancient Greece that brooks few comparisons.”7 These peoples (Greeks) shared the same language (in an oral and written literature)8 and they recognized a common heritage “Hellenes” ( Ελληνες), which they did not share with other men. They belonged, as they felt, to “Hellas”.9 The non-Greeks were “barbarians”. The achievement and importance of Greece comprehended all sides of life. “The Greeks did more for future civilization than any of their predecessors.”10 All Europe drew interest on the “capital” Greece laid down, and through Europe the rest of the world has benefited from what Greeks offered to human civilization. At the Hellenic city of Αἰγαί11 (Βεργίνα) was the capital of the Greek Macedonian state. Alexander ( ̓Αλέξανδρος Φιλίππου Μακεδών), the son of Philip, is one of those historical Greek figures called “Great”. He was a passionate Hellene,12 who believed Achilles13 was his ancestor and carried with him on his campaigns a treasured copy of Homer. He had been tutored by Aristotle.14 Alexander the Great had a staggering record of success, even though that he died at the age of 33 years old. The history of Europe is the history of the Western civilization (a Greek-Christian civilization).15 Indisputable, Roman civilization was descended from the earliest Greek (Hellenic) civilization.16 Today, the European Union has changed drastically because of so many influences by different Muslim (anti-Christian) sub-cultures. “European, or Western, civilization originated from the fusion of German (barbarian) culture and Roman (Hellenic-Christian) civilization during the Dark Ages from the 5th to the 10th century A.D.”17 Of course, history repeats itself. There were even monetary and economic unions in Ancient Greece, i.e., “the Common of Euboeans”, in 2nd century B.C.,18 where they issued a common currency, but they did not last for very long time because of the oppression on their weak member-states.

 

History, scientific truth, divine justice, morality, international law, and human respect are social necessities and they require satisfaction. Each man enjoys existence according to his labor and by himself he determines his future, his heritage, his nation and thus, affects the world. Mutual solidarity, joint responsibility, and real love are essential not only for the life of families, but also for the history of nations and the coexistence of this Cosmos (Κόσμος = order, ornament).19 Moral, ethical, and uncorrupted leadership is necessary to promote patriotism and indigenous value system of a sovereign nation.

 

Today, the Hellenes (Greeks), even though that they are members of NATO and European Union (EU),20 remain ever-vigilant against the expansionistic plans of their neighbors and especially now, since the fall of the communism, Skopjeans have begun to make claims against northern Greece. They have spread far and wide propaganda that Macedonians are not Greeks and they style themselves as the true Macedonians (sic). They have spread lies and disinformation everywhere in all the “controlled” nations,21 the United States, Canada, Australia, and Europe. But the question remains, how can they be Macedonians without being Greeks? And, how dared some nations to turn a blind eye to the historic and scientific truth and recognize this pseudo-state as “Macedonia”?


II. A Swift Historical Journey

Archeological evidence suggests that the Hellenic peninsula, the island of Crete, and the Aegean Cycladic Islands had been inhabited as far back as 6000 B.C. During the Bronze Age (3000-2800 B.C.) these inhabitants developed great cities, powerful navies and rich commerce, resulting in two great civilizations, the Cycladic-Minoan (2500-1400 B.C.) that we can see in Thera (Santorini), Knossos, and Phestos, and the Mycenaean (1600-1100 B.C.) found in Peloponnesos. The Iliad, the Homeric epic, written in approximately the 9th century B.C. illustrates this point through the story of the famed Trojan expedition of the Mycenaeans and many other famous Greek city-states led by the glorious king Agamemnon. Therefore, Greeks are in Asia Minor since 11th century B.C.22

The Dorian migration to the Greek mainland about 1100 to 900 B.C., marked the beginning of the Geometric Period (900-700 B.C.), which is the first period of recorded history. During the Geometric Period the various tribes developed a common alphabet (that Greece uses up to now)23 and religious system (the twelve Olympian gods),24 and a uniform, though separate (city-state), form of government. Also, cultural unity was further enhanced by the establishment of the Olympic Games in 776 B.C., an athletic event involving all of the Greek city-states in peaceful competition25 and social unity. Pan-Hellenic sanctuaries were also constructed.26 It should be noted that such unity included the cultural and commercial development in the various colonies established by some of the city-states of the mainland Greece –spreading from the Black Sea and Asia Minor to Italy, Sicily27 and expanding to the coastal areas of France, Spain, and North Africa.

The Archaic Period (800-550 B.C.) was a time, in which cultural integration progressed, though tribes continued to divide politically into the two most powerful and rival city-states, Athens and Sparta. Sparta developed a semi-totalitarian society with a rigid military code based on territorial conquest; while Athens, a more loosely ordered and democratic society encouraged cooperation between city-states and cultivation of the intellect and the fine arts. The two rivals united for a time against a common foreign enemy, during the Persian wars, which lasted from the battle of Marathon in 490 B.C. to the battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) to the naval battle of Salamis (479 B.C.), and the battle of Plataea (correct Plataeae, Πλαταιαί) in 479 B.C.28

The Classical Period (480-323 B.C.) marked the height of Greek cultural development. As the leader of the Delian Confederacy, an alliance among the main Greek city-states, Athens flourished both economically and culturally. The wealth that they accumulated from shipping, trading, and tribute from allies enabled the Athenians to beautify their city with buildings, temples, theaters, and other magnificent monuments. Under their leader Pericles, architects designed and constructed buildings on the Acropolis, in the Agora and the surrounding area. In the cultural sphere, philosophers, poets, historians, orators, and artists produced some of the greatest works of art and literature. The playwrights Aeschylus,29 Sophocles, Euripides, and Aristophanes; the architects Ictinus and Callicrates; the sculptors Pheidias, Scopas, and Praxiteles; the historian Herodotus, Thucydides, and Xenophon; the orator Demosthenes; the philosophers Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle all lived during this time. The Golden Age of Athens.30 This is the unique Greek civilization! Who can dispute or challenge it?

The Spartans, jealous of Athenian political hegemony conquered Athens in the fifth century after the 27 year Peloponnesian War (431-404 B.C.). Even though Athens never regained her former military strength, Athenian cultural life continued to prosper. From 450 B.C. to 300 B.C., it was the intellectual period, where Socrates taught about the soul and spoke of the Unknown God hoping that He would reveal Himself. Plato and Aristotle made significant contributions to human thought with their moral philosophy and their foundations on almost every science (except Probability Theory), while others experimented with new forms of artistic expression by putting the standard for the future and beautified Athens.

While Athens and Sparta struggled for military supremacy, a new, more powerful political force began to emerge in Macedonia (the Northern part of Greece). In the four decades before the Hellenistic Period (323-146 B.C.), the Macedonians under King Philip II (359 B.C.) forcefully united most of the Greek city-states after defeating Athens and Thebes in battle at Chaeronea, and built a powerful Hellenic confederacy.31 The illustrious Alexander the Great, the son of King Philip, schooled by Aristotle, embarked on a historic expedition in 336 B.C. to conquer the vast empire of the Persians (punish them for their past invasions of Greece). In only eleven years he subdued this mighty foe and extended Hellenic influence far into Africa and Asia, as far as India.32 Alexander’s achievement marked the height of Hellenic military power.33

Following Alexander’s death (323 B.C.), violent and frequent warfare among rival Greek leagues tore apart the Empire. These conflicts rendered the Greek city-states vulnerable to invasion. Finally, in 146 B.C., after fifty years of war, Roman legions conquered Greece. Although conquered, the Greek culture “subjugated” the Roman culture. During and after the Hellenistic Period, the classical Greek culture and Greek language were dominant throughout the Orient.34 In A.D. 50, the Apostle Paul preached Christianity in Greece, and from the time when he spoke to the Athenians about their “Unknown God”, for whom they already had a temple, a common religion, the Hellenic Orthodoxy united them and made them an inseparable group, the Greek-Orthodox people.35 Also, the use of the Greek language in writing the Gospel and by the Eastern Church and her fathers gave a new dimension to Hellenic culture and created the spiritual Medieval Hellenic (Byzantine) culture.

The Christianization of the Roman Empire in 313 A.D. and the building of Constantinople (325 A.D.) by St. Constantine the Great launched Greece along a different historical and cultural path. The relocation of the capital from Rome to the site of ancient Byzantium contributed to the preeminence of Greek culture as a source of political power, and in the end the impact of Hellenism proved irresistible. For the next eleven centuries, until the fall of Constantinople on Tuesday, May 29, 1453, the Greek language and culture refashioned by Orthodox Christianity, formed the sinews of the Byzantine Empire, the Medieval Hellenic Empire.

During those eleven centuries of the Byzantine Period (324-1453 A.D.), Byzantine and Greek history were virtually inseparable. All Greeks had abandoned paganism and adopted Christianity. This led to a magnificent flowering of Byzantine spiritual culture, hymnography, architecture, literature, art, mostly in the form of monastic frescoes and new religious iconography. The fall of Constantinople to the barbarian Ottomans propelled Greece into her darkest period. Muslim Turks, who came from the Far East Asia and had nothing in common with the Hellenic-Orthodox values, ruled Greece with a cruel and ruthless hand throughout much of the Middle Ages. Even though, Greeks kept an inextinguishable awareness of their glorious past and ethnicity and their true faith through the Orthodox Church, monasteries, and the memories passed on from generation to generation. Turkey continues to be the number one enemy of Greece even today. It is supplying military material and weapons to the Skopjeans.36

The Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the Roman Empire.37 It was its evolution and transformation in the East. The transposition of the center of gravity of the Roman nation from West to East (4th century A.D.), the transfer of the capital to an area predominance of the Greek spirit and language and the intense effect of Orthodoxy combined, and created the starting point of one autonomous historic march of the eastern sphere of the Empire. Byzantium was a new political form, where Hellenism and Orthodoxy created a new ( ̔Ελληνορθόδοξον) culture.38

The Byzantine Orthodox hymns39 emphasize that the people of Byzantium are the “people of the Lord”. The same can be seen in other historic texts and it is clear that the perception of the Empire’s role as a divinely guided entity prevailed throughout the world of Byzantium.40 The citizens of the Byzantium are understood to be the “chosen” people of God, the genuine Christian people of the “God guarded” Christian-Orthodox nation, compared with the heterodox of the west; of course, no comparison can be made with the allodox or pagans of today. During its whole journey in history, Byzantium had the same strong perception that among the fundamental goals of the nation was the protection of the Christian faith, its propagation, and its perpetuation until the Second Coming. Many Byzantine Emperors were holy men and are saints of the Greek Orthodox Church, like Saint Ioannis Vatatzis, the Marble Emperor with the six fingers (1222-1254).41 Surrounded most of the time by nations of other religions, the Christian people were obliged to defend their faith, because in this way, they saved their national identity.42 They had a strong involvement in religious strifes, an exceptional sensitivity towards heresies and dogmatic opposition; they were true Greek-Orthodox.

Byzantines were defending their religious unity because in it, they viewed the unity of their communities, “in a community where all, laymen and clergymen relied on the Christian faith for their existence, and reach a point where every act was judged from a religious point of view”.43 The faithful awaited the blessing of the church to attain a better life, not only in the other world, but also in this earthly one. Every faithful was giving to the church, without reservation, the right to involve in his every day life. The church blessed his marriage, his house, his animals,44 his fields, his crops, his bread, his water, and the schools. The church exercised a leading and deterministic role in every aspect of his existence.45

Uprising against the Turk conquerors occurred sporadically throughout the Middle Ages, but it was not until the early nineteenth century that the modern Greek nation evolved (confined by her allies only on the European side of the Byzantine Empire), commensurate with the decline of the barbarian Ottoman Empire. On March 25 (the Annunciation of Theotokos), 1821, Greeks resumed their march through history again. A revolutionary army composed of patriots from Peloponnesos, Sterea Ellada, and the Aegean Islands began to battle the Turkish armies. Although both sides scored success, the conflict soon reached a stalemate. At the request of the Sultan, the Egyptians under Ibrahim Pasha invaded Greece, thus allowing for intervention by the three great European powers –France, England, and Russia- on the side of the Greek insurgents.

However, this foreign intervention was also influenced by the intelligentsia in Western European countries.46 Learned men who were well-read in Ancient Greek history47 and were inspired by the heroism of the fighting Greeks and their suffering from the Turkish atrocities, forced their governments to change their policies to a more sympathetic attitude towards the Greek revolutionists, who want their freedom. So, many came to help not only from Europe, but also from United States, that we call them “Philellines” (friends of Greeks). The final military solution came at the Battle of Navarino, in which British, French, and Russian navies decimated a joint Turkish-Egyptian fleet, breaking the Turkish hold on Greece and Europe. The Sultan, after eight and a half years of revolution, recognized Greece as an independent nation with full diplomatic statues. Yet only one part of the mainland and a few islands were freed. It took other wars to maintain the free status that Greece enjoys today, but even now many parts are still under occupation.48

In the nineteenth century and the early part of the twentieth, the Greek government tried to extend her sovereignty over all adjacent lands inhabited by Greeks for many centuries (since the 10th century B.C. and earlier, according to historic evidences). Greece was euphoric over the success of her armies in the Balkan Wars of 1912 and 1913 and in World War I. In spite of frustrating oppositions between King Constantine and Prime Minister Venizelos,49 part of Greece had at least been freed and was able to join the “entente” and contribute to the allies’ final victory, thus assuring the country’s good will, which future plans would require. After all these war successes, came and the just ultimate objective of the country, “the Great Idea”.50 Venizelos lobbied hard at the 1918 Paris peace conference, urgently presenting his views for an expanded Greece not to include all the territories that Medieval Greece had in the 15th century, but to include only the large Greek Communities in Asia Minor (today occupied, Western Turkey). Most important was the real need to protect the Greek population in that part of Asia Minor, which was subjected to harsh treatment by the Turks during World War I.

On May 15, 1919, the Greek army landed on Asia Minor. Over the next two weeks, the Greek occupation spread north and continued. By mid-June 1920, a Turkish nationalist attack on the British position on the Ismid peninsula at the eastern end of the Sea of Marmara gave Greece the chance to demonstrate her military effectiveness. At the request of the allies, Greece sent her troops to their aid. The troops advanced east from their agreed-upon holding line, and occupied an area from the old capital of Bursa, south to Alashehir and east to Ushak. For good measure, in late July, they also mopped up nationalistic forces in Thrace and entered Adrianople (Edirne).

In this optimistic atmosphere, the treaty of Serves was finally signed on August 10, 1920. The Sultan’s representatives had signed the treaty, but Kemal’s nationalists did not agree. This treaty gave the Greeks all that they asked for. Having been obliged at the time by circumstances to sign the Treaty of Serves, subsequently none of the allies ratified it, nor did Turkey. The treaty remained a piece of paper, the contents of which Greece alone celebrated rather optimistically and prematurely. Even though, earlier in December 1920, the Greek army had advanced to Eski Shehir, where it had found stiff resistance and was forced to retire to its former positions. Anticipating the likelihood that events in Asia Minor could go from bad to worse, a conference was called by the allies in London in late February 1921 inviting delegations from Greece and Turkey. It ended in failure because neither the Greeks nor the Turks would budge.

Meanwhile, the French and the Italians took the opportunity to conclude private agreement with the Kemalists in recognition of their mounting strength. In March 1921, the advance was more in earnest, but so was the defense by the entrenched Turkish Nationalists, who were better prepared and equipped like a regular army. Not willing to go backwards, the Greek government decided to go forward against Kemal and Ankara. The army was increased, reinforced, and reorganized. King Constantine arrived in Smyrna in early June 1921. The Greek army again advanced to Eski Shehir and Afyon Karahisar and this time was successful. The principal objective was Ankara and the Greeks convinced themselves that if they could capture this nationalist capital, they would destroy the Turkish resistance and victory would be theirs. On August 14, 1921, the Greek assault began. In an all-out effort they managed to reach the Sakaraya River and the area near Polatli, about 40 miles from Ankara, before the exhausted Greek armies halted in the first days of September 1921.

The casualties on both sides were enormous, but the Turks remained undestroyed. The enemy now counter attacked, and the Greeks fell back to where they started from, at Eski Shehir. They were at a stalemate and low on military hardware and even in food supplies, and their country was in difficult financial straits. A year later, having gathered strength and aided by a supply of arms from Russia, Kemal Pasha began his final offensive at the end of August 1922. Overwhelmed, the Greeks retreated nearly 120 miles and tried to hold their lines. When that failed, the retreat became a rout. The armed forces were evacuated from Chesme, near Smyrna, September 8-14, 1922 and the massive Greek population tried to flee in panic before the avenging Turks.51 It is estimated that as many as 30,000 civilians lost their lives, and more than a million refugees fled to Greece, as the Greek, Armenian, and European quarters were burned to the ground in a huge fire. These refugees joined half a million or so Greeks who had fled earlier. The large Greek presence in the area had lasted nearly three millennia, but it was now substantially at the end. The “Great Idea” was another one of the victims, at least for one more century.52 Under the terms of the new treaty of Lausanne, signed in June 1923, Turkey kept Eastern Thrace, Constantinople, Bosporus (today’s European Turkey) and the strategic Greek populated islands of Imvros and Tenedos that had been given to Greece under the Treaty of Serves. Greece’s borders with Turkey were (unfairly for Greece) confirmed. Most importantly, the treaty provided for the massive population exchange that became necessary. Unfortunately, the Greek genocide by Turks continued in Constantinople (1955) and in Cyprus (1974).53

In 1939, World War II broke out in Europe and by 1940 most countries of Europe had surrendered and Hitler had the Continent of Europe in his grip. On October 28, 1940 Mussolini decided to take over Greece with an easy victory based on his numbers and mechanized forces. He attacked Greece from Albania. The Greeks with their Prime Minister Ioannis Metaxas stood up and said “Ochi” (OXI = No, you shall not pass) and these heroic forefathers of today’s Greeks fought with a will, hurling back the aggressors, who were supported by the Albanians, too.54 The Duce’s divisions were soon pushed back into Albania and for six months were fighting to maintain a hold on the sea-cost, desperately calling for help. When Germany entered the war against Greece with the most powerful army in Europe, the Greeks continued to fight both of these great empires although reason must have told them that their position was hopeless. Beside their British comrades, they continued to resist stubbornly on the Island of Crete.

Finally, Greece fell, but it cost Hitler thousands of his finest youth, and delayed for two months his attack against Russia. German troops ran into the dreadful Russian winter and the Russians imposed such appalling losses that it contributed to the ultimate defeat of Germany.55 The occupation, great famine, resistance and subsequent liberation of Greece followed, and then came the “December Movement”, in which Greek communists fought their brother Greeks. This civil (communist) war (κομμουνιστο-συμμοριτο-πόλεμος) ended in August 29, 1949 with the defeat of communists.56 England helped Greece first and later, the United States relieved the country with the Marshall plan, and made Greece a member of NATO, which lent Greece to a new era and made her one of the most important allies of the West. But, the west (U.S. and EU) is controlled and under foreign influence and it cannot recognize Greece’s contribution to the entire world.


III. Linguistic Evidence

The Ancient Macedonians, speaking a Greek dialect, had remained, for a few centuries, outside the mainstream of Hellenic culture because, unlike their kinsmen, they never ventured southward and thus did not come into early contact with the Creto-insular population. By the 8th Century B.C., however, the Macedonians were drawn even more closely to the rest of the Greek World. Orestis (the region known today as Kastoria) is mentioned as early as the 7th Century as the birthplace of the Macedonian Dynasty of the Argeads ( ̓Αργειάδων) and Temenids (Τιμενίδων). Argos is, of course, the name of a city in Macedonia, which to this day is called Argos Orestikon ( Αργος ̓Ορεστικόν) to distinguish it from its rather better known Peloponnesian namesake. The fact that the same name, Argos, appears in antiquity in places as far apart as Macedonia and the Peloponnesos is one more piece of evidence showing how much these ancient Greek tribes (South and North) had in common. It declares the common ethnological and linguistic origin of Macedonian and the other Greek tribes of the south.

The name Macedonia (Μακεδονία) comes from the ancient Greek word (μᾶκος = makos),57 which is a Doric form of the word (μῆκος = mikos) meaning length and (Μακεδνός = Makednos) means long/tall.58 The ancient people, who came to Macedonia during the prehistoric era, were noted for their height. They really were (Μακεδνοί = Makedni) tall people.

Even since the “tall ones” the “Μακεδνοί” as they were called in Homeric Greek, settled down in the Balkan Peninsula named after them. Macedonia has rarely been free from controversy. Especially now when the Orthodox Balkans are again the powder-keg that they used to be (other regions compete for this honor, too);59 a festering debate continues to cloud relations between three neighboring countries, namely Skopje (Vardarska Banovina), Greece, and to a lesser degree Bulgaria.60

It will be afflictive for humanity if the historical record is ignored or forgotten or if the Geographical Discipline is rejected because they prove beyond doubt that the holy land of Macedonia is Greek, just as the southern area of Skopje is Greek. It is extraordinary that Greeks have to prove that the great Macedonia philosopher Aristotle61 was Greek and that his name is made up from the Greek words αριστος (best) and τέλος (end), that the Macedonian Alexander the Great is Greek and his name is produced from the Greek words ἀλέξω (repel) and ανδρας (man),62 and that the Macedonian King Philip, father of Alexander, is Greek and his name is composed from the Greek words φίλος (friend) and ιππος (horse), etc.

The capital city of the state of Macedonia was Αἰγαί (Αἰγές) (=Aegai) or Βεργίνα (=Vergina), which means water and coastal land, from where comes the word Αἰγαῖον Πέλαγος (=Aegean Sea).63 The word αἰγιαλός means coast, seashore and αιγες are the waves of the sea. According to Θεόφραστος (Theophrastos), a student of Aristotle, Αἰγαί is derived from the word Αἰγίς, which means unceasing storm. Further, the word Εδεσσα (=Edessa) comes from the amalgamation of the Pelasgian ΕΔΕΟΣ (= θρόνος, throne) with the Pelasgian ending -ΕΣΣΑ, that is to say, the one who has the (Macedonian) throne (state).64

The name ΑΛΕΞ-ΑΝΔΡΟΣ consists of the words, ἀλέξω65 + ἀνήρ, which means the man, who repel the enemies or is composed of ἀλέγω66 + ἀνήρ, which indicates the man, who brings together people of the same race. The word ΑΛΕΣ ascribes the meaning of assembly of men of the same race, i.e., Greeks. (Α = συγκέντρωσις, gathering; Λ = ὁμοειδεῖς-ὁμόφυλλοι, of the same kind-of the same race; Ε = διαχρονικότητα, overtime; Σ = ανθρωποι, persons). Whereas the second word ΑΝΔΡΟΣ explains by whom all these people are concentrated, that means by a man, who has indeed high spirituality, power, vision, energy, and fighting.67

Needless to say that the greatest civilizer of the world was the Greek Alexander the Great from Macedonia ( ̓Αλέξανδρος Φιλίππου Μακεδών, 22 July 356 B.C.-13 June 323 B.C.), who was the greatest among Greeks and a precursor of Jesus Christ.68 John G. Varnakos69 by using Pythagorean arithmology70 proves the existence and the journey of Alexander the Great. Hellas, as the cradle of the world civilization, was able to offer to humanity Alexander, one of the greatest personalities of Ancient Greece. With him, the richness of the ancient Greek language, wisdom, and paideia was transferred to the entire known at the time world and changed the course of humanity. Historians and archaeologists study, for thousands of years, this grandiose march, so to be able to analyze the life and the work of this great Hellen. Alexander himself had said that, <<...Εὐγνωμονῶ τοῖς θεοῖς οτι ἐγεννήθην Ελλην ...>> (=I am grateful to gods that I was borne Greek).

It is not surprising, then, that ancient material and sources have indicated significant evidence that the Macedonian language has always been a Greek language. Examples noted by linguistic scholars include the names of Macedonians, places in Macedonia, months and feasts. The origin of all these words and names is Greek. The same is true for the phonetic structure, conjugation, and termination of words. Such was the extent of these common grounds that the ancient Macedonians could communicate with Southern Greeks comfortably. In addition, contemporary sources at the time of Alexander the Great refer to only one language in use, Greek! So it was that the names of cities built in Asia and Egypt by Alexander the Great and his heirs were Greek.

Improbable, comic (actually, tragicomic because they try to create an independent state from nowhere), theatrical, political (propagandistic with the help from the enemies of Hellas) is the performance of the Slavic Skopjeans to present themselves as descendants of the Greatest of Greeks, τοῦ ̓Αλεξάνδρου Φιλίππου Μακεδών (of Alexander Philip Macedon). In the Greek prehistory and history did not exist forgeries and fictions, as it happens with the contemporary pseudo-historians, who are financed by the grants from the dark powers. For this reason, there was objectivity and truth in ancient times. Arrian71 was saying, << ̓Αλλα αὐτόν γε ̓Αλέξανδρον οὐκ αἰσχύνομαι θαυμάζων>>.

The civilizing journey of the Greek Alexander is also registered by his Greeks close coworkers:72 (1) ̔Ο Καλλισθένης ὁ ̓Ολύνθιος (= Kalliathenis the Olynthian) a student and nephew of Aristotle, who followed Alexander as a historian of his court. (2) ̔Ο Χάρης ὁ Μυτιληναῖος (= Charis the Mytilenean), who wrote ten (10) books with the title, “Histories about Alexander”, with facts from the private life of the King and on what was going on in his court. (3) ̔Ο ̓Ονησίκριτος ἀπό τήν ̓Αστυπάλαια (= Onesicritus from Astypalaea), who was Alexander’s helmsman of his ship, when Alexander was sailing the Indus River. (4) ̔Ο ̓Αριστόβουλος ἀπό τήν Κασσάνδρεια (Aristobulus from Cassandrea) was an engineer in Alexander’s army.73 (5) ̔Ο Πτολεμαῖος ὁ υἱός τοῦ Λάγου (Ptolemy I, son of Lagos, 372-282 B.C.) was a Macedonian Greek general (Alexander’s favorite general) and a friend of Alexander from his early childhood. He was with Alexander from his first campaigns until the end. After Alexander’s death, he became the King of Egypt (founder of the Ptolemaic dynasty). And (6) ὁ ἀρχιναύαρχος Νέαρχος (first navarch Nearchus), who led the navy of Alexander from India to Susa (Persia) and wrote the <<Παράπλου τῆς ̓Ινδικῆς>> (= the Coastal Sail of India). Alexander’s expedition in India is preserved in Arrian’s account, the Indica.

 

In addition, there were some other contemporary of Alexander historians, who gave valuable information to us, as (7) the sophist ̓Αναξιμένης ὁ Λαμψακηνός (= Anaxime-nes of Lampsakos), (8) the orator ̔Ηγησίας ὁ Μάγνης (= Hegesias of Magnesia) founder of ̓Ασιανισμοῦ (= Asianism), (9) the historian Μαρσύας ὁ Πελλαῖος (= Marsyas of Pella) son of Periander (Περιάνδρου) and brother of ̓Αντιγόνου τοῦ Μονοφθάλμου (Antigonus Monophthalmus), and many others. All these historians and contributors of Alexander’s campaign prove the Greekness of Alexander the Great. Further, more information are coming from the <<Βασίλειοι ̓Εφημερίδες>> (= The Royal Journals), constituted the official journal of the Court; responsible for their editing were ὁ Εὐμένης ὁ Καρδινός (= Eumenis the Kardianos) and ὁ Διόδοτος ὁ ̓Ερυθραῖος (= Diodotus the Erythraeos).

The Hellenic virtues of Alexander can be seen with the λεξαρίθμους (word-numbers) of his name. The simple collocation of letter-numbers gives for Alexander the number eight (8):

 

Α Λ Ε Ξ Α Ν Δ Ρ Ο Σ
1- 30 – 5 – 60 – 1 – 50 – 4 -100 -70 -200 = 521 = 8 = 23

 

Nicomachus (Νικόμαχος)74 informs us that the number 8 was named from the Pythagoreans as earthly harmony (ἐπίγειος ἁρμονία). Then, ̓Αλέξανδρος = 8 represents an enormous power (δύναμις), which contains and embodies the elements of justice (δικαιοσύνης) and harmony (ἁρμονίας). With this, it is imprinted the ideal way of exercising authority and the unfolding of human (anthropic) societies.75

Also, ̓Αλέξανδρος Φιλίππου = 9 means Ocean ( ̓Ωκεανός)-Horizon ( ̔Ορίζον). Thus, it is interpreted that the events rotate around his face; all developments are found in his activity and effectiveness. This nine (9) means also, Amity ( ̔Ομόνοια), Prometheus (Προμηθεύς), Ekaergos ( ̓Εκάεργος), Hephaestos ( Ηφαιστος), Terpsichore (Τερψιχόρη), Telesphoros-Effective (Τελεσφόρος), Perfect (Τέλειος), and Harmony ( ̔Αρμονία).76

Further, ̓Αλέξανδρος Μακεδών = 10. This word-number (λεξάριθμος) has the following interpretation: It is imprinted with a shocking way the march of Alexander into the entire world of his time.77 Furthermore, ̓Αλέξανδρος Φιλίππου Μακεδών = [521 or 8] + [1180 or 10] + [920 or 2] = 2 or 20. This emergent formation has as follows: The one and exceptional being, whose Alexander’s personality represented; who undertook with courageous strength and limitless endurance to construct a new heaven (a system of command and collaboration) for the cosmos of his era, which will continue to exist eternally.78 Skopjeans owe, just as all people, to comprehend that the Hellenic History and Alexander walk hand by hand. Consequently, Aristotle-teacher (and what a teacher!) and Alexander-student (and what a student!) walk similarly hand by hand. But, Pythagoreans and Aristotle (uniform body of knowledge) walk similarly hand by hand.79 During the entire time of Alexander’s expedition, Aristotle was the president of the Pythagorean Academy in Athens, which was financed by Alexander. After the death of Alexander, Aristotle abandoned the Academy in Athens to go to Chalcis in Euboea, where he stayed until the end of his life.

The Greek eminent general, Perdiccas (Περδίκκας), as a co-warrior of Alexander, was distinguished initially at the expedition against some Thracian tribes and towards Illyria, who were violated repeatedly the borders of Macedonia.80 Then, during the north march of Alexander towards the Danube (the ancient Istros, Ιστρος),81 Perdiccas was distinguished in particular, when they were passing the river, and showed bravery and self-sacrifice.82 Of course, the Hellenic expedition of Alexander the Great to the depth of the Central Asia, besides the greatest military achievement, it constituted an enormous political and cultural event of eminent importance for Hellenism. Slavs and Paeones did not appear anywhere during the expedition of Alexander. The abolition of the dynasty of Achaemenids ( ̓Αχαιμενιδῶν)83 and the advance of the Greek army until India resulted to the creation of a universal Hellenic nation with long-lasting consequences.

Alexander the Great was an offspring of Hellas and a nursling of Macedonia. He said that, “To my father I owe my been and to my teacher (Aristotle) the well been”.84 From his mother Olympias, the origin of Alexander goes back to the proud Αἰακίδες (Aeacides) from Epirus and from his father Philip, his root reached to the renowned race of ̓Αργεαδῶν (Argeads);85 that is to say, a crossing of blood of two heroes descendants of Zeus, of Achilles and of Hercules, who were representing the beauty, the bravery, and the moderation of the entire Hellenism.86

Ioannis Varnakos, by using geometric forms and the geodesy of the Hellenic region, bear witness of the Greekness of Alexander and of Macedonia. The geometrical-geodesy units of Hellenic dominion of the Ancient Greece (the unique on the earth) speak by themselves for the splendid star of the Pantheon of the Hellenic History. They are:

  1. ΠΕΛΛΑ-ΒΕΡΓΙΝΑ (ΑΙΓΑΙ)-ΔΙΟΝ-ΔΕΛΦΟΙ

  2. ΠΕΛΛΑ-ΒΕΡΓΙΝΑ-ΔΙΟΝ-ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ

  3. ΠΕΛΛΑ-ΒΕΡΓΙΝΑ-ΔΙΟΝ-Ν. ΔΗΛΟΣ

  4. ΠΕΛΛΑ-ΒΕΡΓΙΝΑ-ΔΙΟΝ-ΔΩΔΩΝΗ

  5. ΒΕΡΓΙΝΑ-ΔΕΛΦΟΙ-ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ-ΔΗΛΟΣ

  6. ΒΕΡΓΙΝΑ-ΑΘΗΝΑΙ-ΣΠΑΡΤΗ-ΔΗΛΟΣ

  7. ΒΕΡΓΙΝΑ-ΔΕΛΦΟΙ-ΟΛΥΜΠΙΑ-ΑΘΗΝΑΙ-ΣΠΑΡΤΗ

 

These pyradic (Πυραδικά) shapes fortify the uniform of the history of the Hellenic area and point out these regions, where mainly the civilization of Greeks has been built.87

In the palace of Αἰγῶν (Βεργίνας) (Aegae or Vergina) was found on the floor the inscription saying, << ̔Ηρακλῇ Πατρῴῳ>> (= to Hercules Paternal), which means to Hercules who was the progenitor of the Royal family of the Hellenic Macedonians.88 All the linguistic evidences declare that Macedonia and Macedonians were, are, will be Greeks (Hellenes). The pseudo-historians of our days must learn first, history and if they can, it will be good for them and the world, to learn the Greek language.

During the Turkish occupation, the Greeks’ presence was continuous in Macedonia and Greeks also were living in today’s Skopjean republic. Events reveal that Greek schools of Macedonia were established and were maintained not from a distant Greek Center, but from within local Greek Communities. In these communities, the donators and the legators constitute one piece of the evidences of the presence of a vital, and conscience Greek population in all cities of Macedonia. The Macedonian Greeks of the diaspora were speaking and writing Greek. Also, in the middle of Slavic populations, in northern Serbia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia, Bohemia, and Hungary, Macedonians were speaking Greek. They were Greeks.

Until the Second World War, there was no such thing as a “Macedonian” language. The language spoken by the Slav-speaking inhabitants of northern Macedonia (i.e., regions of southern ex-Yugoslavia and south-western Bulgaria) was always considered to be a Bulgarian dialect. In regions bordering Albania, or in the northern border zone of Greece, it took the form of a local idiom replete with Albanian and Greek words, respectively. It was just a spoken idiom with a poor vocabulary and no grammar or syntax. Indeed, the influence of Greek was such that Slavophone inhabitants in pre-war Greek Macedonia could hardly understand natives of Sofia or Skopje.

After the war, however, when the “Socialist Republic of Macedonia” was set up in Yugoslavia, the new regime there, made an all out effort, to raise the local dialect to the rank of a respectable language. Swarms of linguists, philologists, and other such “scholars” converged in Skopje and set out first, to break off any lingering bonds between the language of Yugoslav Macedonians and Bulgarians. Their next step was to create a separate written language founded on the dialect spoken in central “Yugoslav Macedonia” as well as on massive borrowing from Serbian, Russian, and other Slav languages. The language, thus, constructed was christened “literary Macedonian” and no sooner was it launched than it was recognized in the Yugoslav constitution as one of the three official languages of the Federation.89

Literary “Macedonian”, however, has not managed to shake off, convincingly the Bulgarian connection. What it has done, is to become even less comprehensible to the few ageing Slavophones still living in the border areas and still able to speak their rather poor local Greco-Slav idiom. The language of Skopje is a Bulgarian dialect and the poor Skopjeans are living to an illusory “democracy” that Albanians soon will start undermine it to create the “Muslim Great Albania” inside the Christian Europe with the help of Turkey and Saudi Arabia.

 

IV. Concluding Remarks

According to the ancient historians, the usual call (name) of Alexander during his epoch was: << ̓Αλέξανδρος Φιλίππου (Alexander of Philip), ̓Αλέξανδρος Μακεδών (Alexander Macedon) καὶ ὡς ̓Αλέξανδρος Φιλίππου Μακεδών (Alexander Philip Macedon)>>. Alexander the Great was Greek as it is seen from his name, his language, and his declaration. His role and the role of Hellenism is historic and humanistic –and as time passes the vast majority of people will realize it- because they were able many times in the past to re-orientate humanity. Hellenism is a global movement of ancient moral philosophy combined with the revealed truth of Christianity, the Holy Orthodoxy. Its advantage exists in the adoption of the moderation, the spiritual, the eternal, and the truthful, and at the same time in the rejection of the exaggeration, the materialistic, the transitory, and above all the bold lie. How many today understand this unique culture, which is called the Hellenic Orthodox Culture ( ̔Ελληνορθόδοξος Παιδεία)? The race, which possesses this culture, has the unique ability to reach the highest accomplishments and surpass the pathless degeneration of the human civilization left behind in every historic period. The universal ideas of Hellenism constitute an inexhaustible source of alternating everlasting values. The principles of Hellenism that have changed the intellectual trends of humanity throughout history, have been born to this small geographical region, which for three thousand years obstinately resists the undermining efforts of the “civilized” world and the hordes of barbarians. One representative of this race is Alexander the Great, the Macedonian Greek commander of the army who civilized the world and refined and united Hellenism. Theodore Birt said, “Alexander was the beginning and Christ was the end”.

The pioneer researcher of Macedonian archaeology, Margaritis Dimitsas, in his astonishing work, << ̔Η Μακεδονία ἐν Λίθοις Φθεγγομένοις καὶ Μνημείοις Σωζομέ-νοις>> (= Macedonia on Stones which Speak and on Saved Monuments), characterized with wisdom the Macedonian monuments as <<φθεγγομένους λίθους>> namely, “the speaking stones”.90 Unfortunately, the future of mankind is uncertain because the global system, today, promote the lie, the deception, the delusion, and the forgery of everything, as it is in the current situation, the falsification of history, of the name, of the symbols, and the persons of the Hellenic history, like the one of Alexander the Great. Greece and Greeks cannot abandon their civilization, their history, and their ancestors, and certainly, the one and unique representative of them, Alexander the Great because Europe and the U.S. have economic and military interests to deceive and to promote a wrong nationalism for Skopjeans, so they do not feel inferior as Slavs, but to sleep and to dream that they are descendants of the Greek demigod, Alexander the Great.

The name “Macedonia” was given by Tito and was used for this Yugoslav democracy only since 1945,91 but it was identified for many centuries with Greek civilization and Greek history. Their neighboring Greeks are reasonably disturbed when the name of Macedonia becomes subject to abuse by a region, which ethnologically is not Greek, but Albanian, Vlach, Serb, Gypsy, Turkish, Slavic, and Bulgarian. It is characteristic and suspicious that the two first countries recognized this new government was Bulgaria and Turkey. The stability of the region would be better served by the denial of recognition or by saying to these people and the entire world the historic truth. Finally, if Skopjeans feel that they are Macedonians, let them open their borders and unite with Greece, then, they will become Greeks and at the end they will be Macedonians. Ancient Greek Macedonians can be interpreted better only by these who know the Greek language, the contemporary Greeks and not the Skopjeans and the entrapped west.

As Professor Argyrios Varonides, who is a true Macedonian, has said, “If the Skopje regime really seeks recognition and respect as a democratic state, it needs first to learn how to respect history and not to adopt old faded political arguments of past and collapsed regimes. Do they really want to be Macedonians? Then, they are welcomed with open arms to the Greek culture, which after all has been known, thanks to the Thessalonian brothers Methodios and Kyrillos. Otherwise, they ridicule themselves and become irritating.” Consequently, for someone to become Macedonian, he has, first, to become Greek because the true Macedonians were, are, and will be only Greeks (Ελληνες τῆς Βορείου ̔Ελλάδος).

It is clear when, objectively examined, as it was done here with some linguistic evidence, that the “Macedonian Question” for Greece cannot exist and the “Macedonian Problem” is a non-issue.92 The legal status quo of the northern borders of Greece are determined with international treaties, like the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), which ended the second Balkan War, and the Peace Treaties at the end of the two World Wars, of Neuilly (1919) and of Paris (1947). Also, Macedonia is a geographic concept and not an ethnic notion. In fact, only one country can identify herself, for historical reasons, with Macedonia. That country is Greece, which has been inextricably linked with Macedonia for more than 4,000 years. In the texts of the Ancient Greeks there is knowledge, historic truth, and linguistic evidence, which constitute the foundation of all the current sciences. We are grateful to all these Ancient Greeks, the forefathers of today Hellenes, but we must be lenient with the other people and nations, who only were able to copy the Ancient Greeks and because they ignore the Greek language, they did a very bad copy.

Erroneously, Greek politicians have no territorial claims against neighboring states even though a vast area of her is still under occupation. They regard all borders, which have been consecrated with international treaties and which have been legalized (ratified) with the Final Act of Helsinsky as inviolable. Considering Greek Macedonia, the ethnological homogeneity of the area renders her un-attackable from the various claims that have appeared in the past with the pretext of minority demands.93 It is natural, for someone to consider the existence of this inexistent problem and in the long-run it can include risks, which are possible to involve, the sensitive area of Balkan, into new tribulations. For this reason, Greece looks positively to every effort, which tends to reduce this formerly intense dispute peacefully and fairly according to historical truth; and hopefully the international community will assist her.

For these reasons, Greece has opposed the recognition of an independent nation on her northern border, which will bear the Hellenic name “Macedonia”. Of course, this does not mean that Greece is against the Skopjeans right to establish their own independent nation and have their own language, history, and traditions. All people have the right to self-determination of their future; of course, this choice is confined within the limits of international law (or legality). Greece, however cannot accept the use of the Macedonian name or Hellenic symbols or history by any nation, which is in all other respects Slavic. The terms “Macedonia-Macedonians” and names of similar relevance belong to Hellas and Hellenes (Greece and Greeks). They constitute Greece’s national and cultural inheritance and as such have been recorded in history for many centuries before the appearance of Slavs in the area of Balkans and especially in the area of Macedonia.

Large sections of countries that dream the inexistent historically “Aegean Macedonia” were historically under Greek control and those countries that transgress against Greece today are “inhospitable of the history”. Greeks will never cease, as the Greek race to claim their lost national lands. It is their national duty to state matters concerning Greek Macedonia, both inside and outside of Greece, exactly as they are to restore the historical truth that expediency, and misguided and calculating interest continue to counterfeit and distort. It is necessary for the preservation of their unique Greek Orthodox Culture, that every one be in good conscience and that Greece permanently “guard Thermopylae”. This duty must not be the subject of a transient alert or mobilization, but the constant care of the current and future citizens of the historic country, Hellas.

The fact, that the ancient Macedonians belong to the world of Greeks, is very difficult to dispute any longer. The new archeological treasures (found in Aegae, Vergina)94 in connection with linguistic analyses and evidences and the findings of a great number of new inscriptions95 –all Greek– with rich samples of Greek names, prove that there is no discontinuation of either cultural or linguistic of the unity of the Macedonians with the rest of the Greeks.96 Also, the spreading of the Greek language and the Greek civilization and culture to the entire known world from the Macedonians of the Alexander the Great constitutes the most categorical confirmation of this event. This event is confirmed every year by the new archeological findings that are coming to light either at the large excavations of Pella, Vergina, Dion, and Sindos, or in dozens less known, like in areas of Voion, Aeani, Kozani, Kastoria, Florina, Edessa, Aridaea, Kilkis, Kavala, and of course, Thessaloniki and Chalkidiki (Petralona), and others (in Asia and Egypt).

Greece, every Greek, and every one who has an objective knowledge of history are opposed to Skopje’s name as “Macedonia”. Skopje’s peoples are not properly a distinct nation, but belong, by language and culture, to one or another, or perhaps all three of the neighboring Slavic states (they have nothing in common with Hellenic Macedonians). Recognition of Skopje as “Macedonia” is historically, scientifically, and morally wrong. Skopjean deception has created an enormous propaganda, which is published in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and other papers around the world is unconscionable, constant, and provocative.97 If Skopje were to give up the policy of misappropriating the term “Macedonians”; if it were to adopt, for instance, another term, (such as “Vardarians” or “Dardanians” or “Sclavinians”),98 in order to designate the Slav inhabitants of “Yugoslav Macedonia” and possibly certain émigré groups who share her views; the Greeks, naturally, would have no quarrel with this state of affairs.There is necessary that Greeks will undertake a big campaign all over the world to inform the international community and especially the Greek Prime Minister, George Papandreou, as well as the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and the mayor of Thessaloniki, Boutaris, who act against Greece’s interest and rights.99

Nevertheless, these differences are due to the inexistent Macedonian question that Skopjeans have created. Greek-Serbian relations are positive on many domains as both sides realize the mutual benefits of good, friendly, cooperative, and neighborly relations. But both nations realized that Skopje has been put between Greece and Serbia by other powers, the moral perpetrators of the Macedonian problem, who are against these two homodox nations. Greeks, Serbians, Bulgarians, Russians, Rumanians, and all the other Eastern European nations have something in common that is not common to this world, we cannot find it anywhere else. They are “brothers in Christ”, Christian Orthodox nations. We hope that Skopje will realize its historic and anti-scientific deception and go back to its true name, “Vardarska” or its older one “Dardania”. After the collapse of communism and the current crisis of capitalism, the cosmos is awaiting these peoples’ contribution to its history and Greece can play once more an important role in their re-Christianization and promotion of peace and prosperity in the Balkans. Undoubtedly, Macedonians were always Greeks and Skopjeans were Slavs (= Μακεδόνες ἀεί Ελληνες, Σκοπιανοί ἀεί Σλάβοι).

 

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1 See, Jones (1997).

2 See, Kebric (1997) and Kitto (1987).

3 See, Marchant and Todd (1997)

4 See, Pedley (1998).

5 But, at the same time, Hellas faces a lot of opposition from heretics (heterodoxs) and other religions (allodoxs) because of her traditional Orthodoxy and her Hellenic paideia.

6 With their wisdom, like: “Moderation in all things” (Πᾶν μέτρον αριστον) or “Know yourself” (Γνῶθι σαὐτόν), Greeks set the foundations and advanced the world.

7 See, Davies (1998, p. 95).

8 See, Kallianiotis (2010j).

9 Hellenes had the same blood, the same language, the same religion, and the same behavior (morals) (ομαιμον, ὁμόγλωσσον, ὁμόθρησκον καὶ ὁμότροπον), according to Herodotus ( ̔Ηρόδοτος), (484-410 B.C.). <<Τό ̔Ελληνικόν ἐόν ομαιμόν τε καὶ ὁμόγλωσσον καὶ θεῶν ἱδρύματά τε κοινά καὶ θυσίας, ηθεά

τε ὁμότροπα... >> ( ̔Ιστοριῶν ̓Ογδόη - Η ́ 144). See, Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179).

10 See, Roberts (1997, p. 43).

11 Αἰγαί (=Aegai or Vergina) according to the ancient tradition (Homer’s Iliad 13, 21 and Homer’s Odyssey 5, 381) means water.

12 See, Roberts (1997, p. 47).

13 See, Homer’s Iliad.

14 ̔Ο Ελλην Ομηρος ὑπῆρξεν ὁ ἀγαπημένος συγγραφεύς τοῦ Ελληνος ̓Αλεξάνδρου, ὁ ὁποῖος

κατεῖχε τήν παιδείαν τοῦ Ελληνος ̓Αριστοτέλους.

15 The European civilization was a Hellenic-Orthodox civilization up to the 9th century A.D., before the barbaric invasions from West and North. See, Sakarellos (2005).

16 See, Jones (1997), Kebric (1997), Vasiliev (1980), and Paparrigopoulos (2003).

17 See, Blum, Cameron, and Barnes (1970, p. 4).

18 See, Vranopoulos (1995, p. 168).

19 Πρῶτος ὁ Πυθαγόρας χρησιμοποίησε τήν λέξη ––κόσμος̈̈, γιά νά ὑποδηλώνη τήν ὀργανωμένη

τάξη τῶν ἀνθρώπων καὶ τοῦ σύμπαντος. See, Varnakos (1997, p. 64).

20 Eurogroup chief Jean-Claude Juncker said that Greece's financial woes were well known among top EU officials, but kept quiet until the crisis erupted last year. "It was quite obvious that one day Greece would have to face this kind of problem, and we knew that this problem would occur," Juncker told a forum on the sidelines of the International Monetary Fund and World Bank meetings in Washington on October 8, 2010. Juncker said German and French officials along with European Central Bank chief Jean-Claude Trichet had for some time been discussing "the perspectives of what was not at that time known as so-called Greek crisis." "I could not go public with the knowledge that I had," he added. "The Greek crisis could have been avoided, but not starting last year, starting two or three decades ago," the European finance ministers chief said. Juncker said he tried at one point to seek a solution to the problems with an unnamed Greek prime minister who told him: "I am governing a country of corruption." This was actually a crime against the European Citizens (said Giorgos Vamvakousis). Germany and France culpability about Greece's deficit is confirmed by the Eurogroup President Mr. Juncker. Germany and France have been only interested to sell to the Greek corrupted politicians at overdrafted prices. This way, they created a problem not only to Greece, but to the Euro and to their own countries’ Citizens, too. A problem to the Eurozone and to the European Union. Mrs. Merkel and Mr. Sarkozy are fully responsible for the problem and should be put in trial as political criminals. We should not forget that who is corrupting somebody else, he is corrupted, too. Those are our “friends” in EU. See, www.eurobusiness.com/news-eu/economy-finance-g20.6h6/ 08 October 2010.

21 Mahathir Mohamad, former leader of Malaysia, said that “Jewish groups secretly control the World’s great powers”. See, The Wall Street Journal, October 9-10, 2010, p. A1 and A11.

22 Unfortunately, in 1920, Greeks faced a dreadful genocide and unlawful expulsion from their ancestral homeland by Kemal pasha (a hospitable of history from Mongolia), after living in this region for 3,000 years.

23 This is the Greek language (ὁμόγλωσσον), a unique instrument of communication, used in sciences (mostly, in medicine, computers, etc.), and in arts. See, Kallianiotis (2010j).

24 Of course, Greek philosophers in the 5th century B.C. doubted about these gods and introduced the “Unknown God”, for whom they built a temple.

25 Completely different of what we see today with illicit antagonism, drugs, exercise of power among nations, millions of dollars involvements, and by taking the modern Olympic Games out from the country of their origin (Olympia in Greece).

26 For example, the most common sanctuaries were in Olympia, Delphi, Dodoni (or Dodona), etc. See also, Elizabeth R. Gebhard, The Evolution of a Pan-Hellenic Sanctuary: From Archaeology towards History at Isthmia (This article originally appeared in Greek Sanctuaries, New Approaches (1993, pp.154-177), and is made available electronically with the permission of the editors.)

28 In 490 B.C., with the victorious battle of Marathon and the battle of Thermopylae (480 B.C.) with the sacrifice of Leonidas (300 Spartans, 700 Thespeans, and 200 Thebeans); Athenians and the other Greek states repelled Persian invasions and Athens assumed leadership of Greek alliance. A year later (479 B.C.), the battle of Salamis was Athenians’ greatest naval victory and the same were the battles of Plataea and Mycale.

29 Aeschylos was saying regarding Homer that, <<Οἱ τραγωδίες μου ησαν τά ἀποφάγια ἀπό τά μεγάλαδεῖπνα τοῦ ̔Ομήρου>>. Aeschylus (Greek: Αισχύλος, Aiskhulos; 524/525 B.C. – 455/456 B.C.) was the first of the three ancient Greek tragedians whose work has survived, the others being Sophocles and Euripides, and is often recognized as the father of tragedy. His name derives from the Greek word aiskhos (αισχος), meaning "shame". According to Aristotle, he expanded the number of characters in plays to allow for conflict among them; previously, characters interacted only with the chorus. Only, seven of an estimated seventy to ninety plays by Aeschylus have survived into modern times.

30 Socrates (469-399 B.C.) was sentenced in Athens to drink hemlock for “introducing strange gods” (καινά δαιμόνια), when actually he was teaching about the “Unknown God” (the True God). This person, the wisest man in human history was saying: “All I know is that I know nothing” ( Εν ειδα οτι οὐδέν ειδα). Socrates, his disciple (student) Plato and Plato’s own disciple Aristotle (the teacher of Alexander the Great) laid the foundations of most branches of all disciplines. Greek science was simply a branch of their general moral and ethical philosophy. There is no possibility that something good can come from corrupted people. [It is absolutely wrong to accuse ancient Greeks as immoral without any proofs, as Davies (1998) is doing it easily. Pervert people, today, try to cover their abnormal behavior by saying the same things for the moral, ethical, and virtuous Ancient Greeks.] With the coming of Christ, the nation was the first to accept Him as the expected “Unknown God”. This is exactly what we call “Hellenic-Orthodox civilization”, a combination of the ancient moral and ethical Hellenic philosophy with the revealed Truth (Orthodox Christianity). Xenophon, a disciple of Socrates, too, is the “Father of Economics” (Oeconomicos=Οἰκονομικός). The word “nomisma” (νόμισμα), meaning coin, was used by Greeks, also specialization, futures contracts, protectionism, purchase of domestic products to improve employment, control of inflation, and many other terms used in Economics today. According to Herodotus, money, in the sense of coinage (drachmas), began to circulate in the Aegean in the early 7th century B.C. [The island of Aegina, also, participated in the early days of coinage (silver coins since 670 B.C.), the first money in Europe. Then, coins were minted in Athens, Corinth, Euboea, Syracuse, and other Greek city-states and their colonies. See, Davies (1998, p. 101).] In addition, Greek history-writing had its triad of giants. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (484-420 B.C.) is the “Father of History”, Thucydides (455-401 B.C.) the Athenian and Xenophon (428-354 B.C.) the Athenian, are great historians, too.

31 Because as Hellenes, all these city-states had many similarities, as Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179) refers them.

32 There are many tribes in Asia today that they claim of being descendants of Greeks, since that time of Alexander, like the Kallas in northern Iran.

33 From 404 to 338 B.C. hegemonies of Sparta, Thebes, and Macedonia (area of Northern Greece) appeared. From 359-336 B.C., the reign of Philip of Macedonia took place. From 338-323 B.C. Alexander the Great conquered the entire Asia; he went to India and Africa, too. The Old Persian Empire, which had invaded Greece many times in the past, was overrun by the Greek-Macedonians. In 322 B.C., Greek-Macedonians took over Athens and overturned the Athenian democracy. From 323 to 272 B.C., Alexander’s successors sought domination and the Hellenistic Kingdoms were created in Greece and the rest of the Empire – of Macedonia-Greece (with Antigonus, ̓Αντίγονος), of Egypt (with Ptolemy, Πτολεμαῖος), [The tomb of Alexander the Great was discovered by the Greek archeologist Liana Souvaltzi. See, Souvaltzi (2002).] and of Syria, Mesopotamia, and Iran (with Seleucus, Σέλευκος). “Under the sponsorship of Alexander’s Empire and the Hellenistic Kingdoms that succeeded it, Greek culture spread over the whole Mediterranean world, and in the first century B.C. achieved a thorough intellectual conquest of the imperial Roman republic, its military conqueror.” [Blum, Cameron, and Barns (1970, p. 10)].

34 Even the Gospels were written in Greek language and with this language the New Religion was spread to the entire known world of that time. This was the language of the Greek King Alexander the Great and his descendants. The non-Greek speaking nations were “barbarians” outside the Hellenic culture and paideia (παιδεία). This is the historic truth and not what some pseudo-states anxiously try to distort the science of history.

35 The proportion of Greeks that are Orthodox is 98% of the population. Someone that is not Orthodox could not be considered Greek, too (<< Ελληνες ἀεί ̓Ορθόδοξοι>>). This is the homogeneity and uniqueness of these people.

36 TV News MEGA, December 25, 2010.

37 See, Vasiliev (1980).

38 The contribution of the three hierarchs (Sts. Vassilios, Grigorios, and Ioannis) is unique in the connection of the ancient Greek moral paideia with the Christian revealed values.

39 ––Σῶσον Κύριε τόν λαόν Σου καὶ εὐλόγησον τήν κληρονομίαν Σου, νίκας τοῖς βασιλεῦσι κατά

βαρβάρων δωρούμενος καὶ τόν Σόν φυλάττον διά τοῦ Σταυροῦ Σου πολίτευμα.>> Hymn chanting on the day of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross.

40 The same beliefs continue to hold even today in the Greek Orthodox nation and the Greeks of Diaspora, who are more than 100 million people of Greek origin spread around the world. This unique culture is inconceivable by any other sub-culture.

41 See, Αγιος ̓Ιωά́ννης Βατάτζης, ὁ Μαρμαρωμένος Αὐτοκράτορας, ὁ ̔Εξαδάχτυλος Βασιλεύς τῶν

̔Ελλήνων, ὁ Μέγας ̓Ελεήμων. http://www.marmaromenosautokratoras.gr/index_en.html

42 The problem that Greece is facing today is the dilution of her identity due to millions of Muslims illegal immigrants that Turkey is smuggling into the Greek nation. This is a new Turkish invasion to Greece after the previous one in 1974 in Northern Cyprus.

43 See, Tamara Rice, ̔Ο δημόσιος καὶ ἰδιωτικός βίος τῶν Βυζαντινῶν, μετ. Φ. Βῶρος, Παπαζήσης,

̓Αθῆναι, σ. 94.

44 Saint Modestos (commemorated on December 16) is the protector of the animals.

45 These things are exactly what we find in Orthodox Greece today, even though communist and socialist regimes tried very hard, lately, to change this strong union between the state and the church. The church’s role, the hymns, the customs, the hospitality, the food, the social events, and the entire way of life in Byzantium can be found in Greece today, which is the continuation of the Medieval Greek Empire, the Byzantine Empire, and of the Ancient Greece.

46 The men of letters around the world are always supporting the Greek cause because they know the true historic events and their opinion is objective, compared with other people, who support the powerful ones and the ones that bribe the most.

47 A major disadvantage suffered by the World Community, has always been and remains today, it is the lack of knowledge of Byzantine (Greek Medieval) history, which has been pursued by the heterodox West to lower the values and the glory of this Orthodox Empire. Unfortunately, even science has been mobilized to support the lies and the political expediency of some nations, which based their identity on delusions.

48 The Greek regions that are under occupation today are: North Epirus (under Albania), North Macedonia (under Skopje), North Thrace and Eastern Rumelia (under Bulgaria), Eastern Thrace, Asia Minor, the Islands of Imvros, Tenedos, and Northern Cyprus (under Turkey). This is the historic truth and cannot change. Greece’s objective must be the liberation of her lands that are still under occupation.

49 Venizelos had recommended Kemal pasha for the Nobel Peace Prize. He also tried to abolish the aspirate (δασεῖα) from the Greek language.

50 “The Great Idea”, a historically just and fair aspiration for the nation that civilize the world, was ever in the hearts and minds of the heroic and faithful revolutionists during the war of independence and the Greeks allover the world today, but their “friends” had different plans. Of course, nations do not exist by chance; they have a mission to accomplish.

51 Many Western newspapers reporting gross abuses committed by Turkish forces against Christian, mainly Greek and Armenian civilians. The British historian Tonybee stated that “Turkish troops deliberately burned numerous Greek homes, pouring petrol on them and taking care to ensure that they were totally destroyed”. There were massacres throughout 1920-1923, the period of the “Turkish War of Independence”, especially of Armenians in the East and the South, and against the Greeks in the Black Sea Region. There was also significant continuity between the organizers of the massacres between 1915–1917 and 1919-1921 in Eastern Anatolia. According to the London based Times: "The Turkish authorities frankly state it is their deliberate intention to let all the Greeks die, and their actions support their statement." An Irish paper, the Belfast News Letter wrote: "The appalling tale of barbarity and cruelty now being practiced by the Angora Turks is part of a systematic policy of extermination of Christian minorities in Asia Minor." According to the Christian Science Monitor, the Turks felt that they needed to murder their Christian minorities due to Christian superiority in terms of industriousness and the consequent Turkish feelings of jealously and inferiority. The paper wrote: "The result has been to breed feelings of alarm and jealously in the minds of the Turks, which in later years have driven them to depression. They believe that they cannot compete with their Christian subjects in the arts of peace and that the Christians and Greeks especially, are too industrious and too well educated as rivals. Therefore from time to time they have striven to try and redress the balance by expulsion and massacre. That has been the position generations past in Turkey again if the Great powers are callous and unwise enough to attempt to perpetuate Turkish misrule over Christians." A Turkish governor, Ebubekir Hazim Tepeyran in the Sivas Province said in 1919 that the massacres were so horrible that he could not bear to report them. He was referring to the atrocities committed against Greeks in the Black Sea region, and according to the official tally 11,181 Greeks were murdered in 1921 by the Central Army under the command of Nurettin Pasha (who is infamous for the killing of Archbishop Chrysostomos). Some parliamentary deputies demanded Nurettin Pasha to be sentenced to death and it was decided to put him on trial although the trial was later revoked by the intervention of Mustafa Kemal. Taner Akcam wrote that according to one newspaper, Nurettin Pasha had suggested to kill all the remaining Greek and Armenian populations in Anatolia, a suggestion rejected by Mustafa Kemal. According to the newspaper The Scotsman, on August 18 of 1920, in the Feival district of Karamusal, South-East of Ismid in Asia Minor, the Turks massacred 5,000 Christians. As well as massacring Greeks, the Turks also massacred Armenians, continuing the policies of the 1915 Armenian Genocide according to many Western newspapers. There were widespread massacres of Greeks in the Pontus region, which is recognized as the Pontian Genocide. On February 25, 1922, 24 Greek villages in the Pontus region were burnt to the ground. An American newspaper, The Atlanta Observer wrote: "The smell of the burning bodies of women and children in Pontus" said the message "comes as a warning of what is awaiting the Christian in Asia Minor after the withdrawal of the Hellenic army." In the first few months of 1922, 10,000 Greeks were killed by advancing Kemalist forces, according to Belfast News Letter. The Turks continued the practice of slavery, seizing women and children for their harems. Many Turkish soldiers would also rape women. American relief works were also treated with extreme disrespect, even when they were aiding Muslim civilians. Christian Science Monitor wrote that Turkish authorities also prevented missionaries and humanitarian aid groups from assisting Greek civilians, who had their homes burned, the Turkish authorities leaving these people to die despite abundant aid. The Christian Science Monitor wrote: "the Turks are trying to exterminate the Greek population with more vigor than they exercised towards the Armenians in 1915." According to a proclamation made in 2002 by the then-governor of New York (where a sizeable population of Greek Americans resides), George Pataki (of Hungarian descent), “Greeks of Asia Minor endured immeasurable cruelty during a Turkish government-sanctioned systematic campaign to displace them; destroying Greek towns and villages and slaughtering additional hundreds of thousands of civilians in areas where Greeks composed a majority, as on the Black Sea coast, Pontus, and areas around Smyrna; those who survived were exiled from Turkey and today they and their descendants live throughout the Greek diaspora. A sizable population of Greeks had been forced to leave its ancestral homelands of Ionia, Pontus, and Eastern Thrace between 1914-1922. These refugees, as well as the Greek Americans with origins in Anatolia were not allowed to return after 1923 and the signing of the Treaty of Lausanne. The last part of Kemal's ethnic cleansing campaign to create an ethnically pure homeland for the Turks was the instigation of a forcible transfer of populations uprooting close to a 1.5 million Greeks from Turkey in exchange for less than half a million Muslims from Greece.” According to historian Dinah Shelton: "the Lausanne Treaty completed the forcible transfer of the country's Greeks". The most outrageous is that these Muslim barbarians from Central Asia have the audacity and demand to become members of the Christian European Union!

52 Because prophecies are saying that, <<Πάλιν μέ χρόνους μέ καιρούς, πάλιν δικά μας θα ναι>>.

53 The Greek Genocide 1914-1923 and 1955: During the Greek Genocide in total more than 15,000 Greeks of Constantinople were rounded up and deported. In March 8, 1915, 200 Greeks of Constantinople had been arrested and deported into the interior of Asia Minor, where they were murdered. The March 1915 arrest and deportation of 200 Greeks from Constantinople was a precursor to the April 1915 arrest and deportation of a similar number of Armenians from the same city. In June 1915 Greeks from the districts of Vathikolpos, Caenophrurium, Metres, Selybria were imprisoned in the city. In July 1915 the Greek residents of Sosthenion were all deported with the exception of five families, who were exempted on the orders of the Chief-Policeman of Mega Revma. In the same month, numerous members of the Greek clergy were imprisoned in the city. Later, 200 Greek families of Tatavla were deported into the Interior. In December 1917, the British Legation at Berne affirmed: “Greeks are being daily cleared out of Constantinople and its surroundings and taken to the interior of the country. Their property is seized and their belongings sold by auction. The women and girls are distributed between the German officials and the Moslems of importance. …It is estimated that in Constantinople over 300 Greeks have been enslaved.” The Pogrom (σφαγή, διωγμός) of September 1955: The anti-Greek pogrom of September 6-7, 1955 in Constantinople was a systematic act of ethnic cleansing perpetrated against the Greek minority of the city. Acts of ethnic cleansing as perpetrated by the Republic of Turkey are viewed distinctly from the 1914-1923 Greek Genocide. A few scholars, however, have indicated that the 1955 program exhibited characteristics of a genocide program. In a telegram to the U.S. State Department sent on the night of September 6, 1955, the American Consul General in Constantinople reported: “Extensive destruction and situation appears completely out of hand with no evidence of police or military attempt to control. I personally witnessed the looting of many shops, while the police stood idly by or cheered on mob.” A British correspondent in the city at the time, reported: “All evidence points to an exact, perfectly coordinated attack. The flame that swept the city was ignited at a hundred different points at precisely the same zero hour.” See, Alexandris (1992), De Zayas (2007), Kaloumenos (2001), Vryonis (2005), and Kyratzopoulos (2006). On March 4, 2010, a congressional panel approved a resolution condemning the 1915 slaughter of Armenians, which put a chill on relations between U.S. and Turkey (The Wall Street Journal, March 5, 2010, pp. A1 and A5). Also, on March 11, 2010, Sweden’s parliament approved a resolution calling the 1915 mass killing of Armenians in Turkey genocide. (The Wall Street Journal, March 12, 2010, pp. A1 and A15). The Turkish invasion of Cyprus: This “Operation Atilla” launched on 20 July 1974 and it was a Turkish military operation against Cyprus. The Turkish invasion took place in two stages and ended in August 1974, when Turkish troops occupied 37% of the island's territory, which was followed by the establishment of the de facto Turkish pseudo-Republic of Northern Cyprus that only Turkey recognizes, in contradiction of the terms of the 1960 Treaty of Guarantee. Both the United States and NATO supported the idea of a Turkish military intervention. Inter-communal strife that preceded the invasion had brought Greece and Turkey, two NATO allies, to the brink of total war in a number of occasions between 1963 and 1974; the most serious clash was prevented through the last minute mediation of the U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson on June 5, 1964. The Greek side blamed the U.S. administration of President Richard Nixon, and in particular Henry Kissinger for supporting Turkey before and during the Turkish military invasion, following a decision by the U.S. National Security Council in May 1974 to bring an end to the Cyprus problem. The Turkish invasion of 1974, the displacement of 180.000 Greek Cypriots from the occupied areas, the thousands of missing, the Turkish atrocities against Greek, the rapes of women and girls and then their murder, the killing of POWs, and many other crimes plus the establishment of the self-declared Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus in 1983, form the core issues surrounding the Cyprus dispute. The United Nations Security Council has challenged the legality of Turkey's action, because Article Four of the Treaty of Guarantee gives the right to guarantors to take action with the sole aim of re-establishing the state of affairs. The aftermath of Turkey's invasion, however, did not safeguard the Republic's sovereignty and territorial integrity, but had the opposite effect; such as the de facto partitioning of the Republic in two, the creation of a separate political entity in the north and the forceful expulsion of Greek Cypriots from it. A large number of Turkish Cypriots, many of whom were forced to live in isolated enclaves and ghettoes throughout the island during the inter-communal violence between 1963 and 1974, chose to leave their homes in the south and moved to the north after 1974. The United Nations still recognizes the sovereignty of the Republic of Cyprus according to the terms of its independence in 1960. The conflict continues to affect Turkey’s relations with Cyprus, Greece, and the European Union.

55 Germany has not yet paid the indemnities for the war damages that it inflicted to Greece and her citizens.

56 The Greek Civil War (December 1944-January 1945 and 1946-49) was two-stage conflict during, which Greek communists, unsuccessfully, tried to gain control of Greece. The first stage of the civil war (correctly, κομμουνιστοσυμμοριτοπόλεμος) began, only months before Nazi Germany's occupation of Greece ended, in October 1944. The German occupation had been resisted by two principal Greek guerrilla forces, the communist-controlled EAM-ELAS (Ethnikón Apeleftherotikón Métopon-Ethnikós Laïkós Apeleftherotikós Strátos; "National Liberation Front-National Popular Liberation Army") and the EDES (Ellínikos Dímokratikos Ethnikós Strátos; "Greek Democratic National Army"), which occasionally cooperated in action. After eliminating all of its political and guerrilla rivals except the EDES in early 1944, EAM-ELAS set up a provisional government in the Greek mountains that by implication disowned both the Greek king and his government-in-exile. Upon the German troops' withdrawal from Greece in October 1944, the communists and royalist Greek guerrillas were brought together under British auspices in an uneasy coalition government in Athens. But this government disintegrated a few weeks later, when the communist members of the coalition refused to disband their guerrilla force. A bitter civil war broke out in Athens on December 3, 1944, which the British military forces managed to suppress with great difficulty, after EAM-ELAS had overrun virtually all of Greece except Athens and Thessaloniki. The communists accepted defeat and the disbandment of their forces at a conference in February 1945, and a general election was held in Greece in March 1946. The communists and their followers abstained from the voting, however, and a royalist majority was returned. A plebiscite was then held in September 1946 which restored the Greek king to the throne. During 1946 a full-scale guerrilla war was reopened by the communists, who had gone underground. The commitment of defending Greece became too much for Great Britain, and it was taken on by the U.S. government, with the announcement of the Truman Doctrine. Massive military and economic aid from the United States was much needed, for by the end of 1947 the communists had proclaimed a provisional government in the northern mountains. This second communist rebellion lasted until 1949, when the U.S.-supplied and strengthened Greek army managed to clear the rebel centers from the mountainous Greek interior. On October 16, 1949, the Greek communist broadcasting station announced the end of open hostilities, and many of the remaining communist fighters fled the country into neighboring Albania. It is estimated that more than 50,000 combatants died in the conflict, and more than 500,000 Greeks were temporarily displaced from their homes by the fighting. The internecine strife and fierce brutality that characterized the civil war left a lasting legacy of bitterness between segments of the Greek population and communists are, even today, unrepentant for their crimes against their fellow Greek brothers.

57 The word μᾶκος is used even today as μάκρος (=length) in Greek language, which proves that Ancient Macedonians and today’s Macedonians are the same people, Greeks (Hellenes) with the same language.

58 This different in height can be seen even today. North Greeks (Macedonians) are taller than South Greeks (Peloponnesians).

59 The dark powers, as moral perpetrators, try with all their means to divide all states, so they can conquer the Orthodox nations of Eastern Europe and Balkans from Russia to Hellas. Of course, they are not going to succeed to this infernal plan.

60 Lately, with the creation of an independent Kosovo (actually, an Albanian protectorate of the West) and the other plans of the enemies of Orthodoxy, the Muslim Great Albania, will cause serious problems to this area in the near future. Of course, the moral perpetrators (ἠθικοί αὐτουργοί) are not these neighbors, but the true enemies of the Orthodox.

61 Aristotle (Greek: ριστοτέλης, Aristotélēs) (384 B.C. – 322 B.C.) was a Greek philosopher, a student of Plato and teacher of Alexander the Great. His writings cover many subjects, including physics (the relativity theory had been developed by Aristotle in the 4th century B.C. and in the 20th century A.D. was presented with a mathematic formula by Einstein, the student of the Greek mathematician, Constantine Caratheodoris, Κωνσταντῖνος Καραθεοδωρής, who knew Aristotle’s relativity theory), metaphysics, poetry, theater, music, logic, rhetoric, politics, government, ethics, biology, and zoology. Together with Plato and Socrates (Plato's teacher), Aristotle is one of the most important founding figures in Western philosophy. Aristotle's writings were the first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, encompassing morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics. All aspects of Aristotle's philosophy continue to be the object of active academic study today. Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues (Cicero described his literary style as "a river of gold"), it is thought that the majority of his writings are now lost and only about one-third of the original works have survived. Aristotle was appointed as the head of the royal academy of Macedon. During that time he gave lessons not only to Alexander ( ̓Αλέξανδρος, 356-323 B.C.), but also to two other future kings: Ptolemy (Πτολεμαῖος, 367-283 B.C.) and Cassander (Κάσσανδρος, 350-297 B.C.). In his Politics, Aristotle states that only one thing could justify monarchy, and that was if the virtue of the king and his family were greater than the virtue of the rest of the citizens put together. Tactfully, he included the young prince, Alexander, and his father in that category. Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest, and his attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric. In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be “a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants”.

62 ̓Αλέξανδρος σημαίνει αὐτός πού συγκεντρώνει ανδρες πολεμιστές γύρω του. See, Varnakos (1997).

63 The correct spelling is “Aegaeon Sea”.

64 See, Varnakos (1997, p. 48).

65 ἀλέξω = ἀπομακρύνω, ἀποκρούω, ὑπερασπίζω, βοηθῶ.

66 ἀλέγω = συναριθμῶ, συγκαταλέγω, φροντίζω, μεριμνῶ.

67 See, Varnakos (1997, pp. 49-50).

68 We cannot deceive human beings because we have the economic power, the “intellectual” one or the military. We have the obligation to say only the Truth that Jesus Christ taught us.

69 See, Varnakos (1997).

71 Λεύκιος Φλάβιος ̓Αρριανός (Lucius Flavius Arrianus 'Xenophon' 86 – 160 A.D.), known in English as Arrian and Arrian of Nicomedia, was a Roman (ethnic Greek) historian, public servant, a military commander and a philosopher of the 2nd-century Roman period. As with other authors of the Second Sophistic, Arrian wrote primarily in Attic [Indica (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indica_(Arrian)) is in Herodotus' Ionic dialect, his philosophical works in Koine Greek). Nothing is written in “Macedonian” language because such language did not exist. His works preserve the philosophy of Epictetus, and include the ( ̓Αλεξάνδρου ̓Ανάβασις) Anabasis of Alexander, an important account of Alexander the Great; as well as the Indica, a description of Nearchus' voyage from India following Alexander's conquest, and other short works. Arrian is generally considered one of the best sources on the campaigns of Alexander, as well as one of the founders of a primarily military-based focus on history.

72 See, Varnakos (1997, pp. 23-24).

73 ̓Αριστόβουλος was also a Greek historian, who in his youth accompanied Alexander the Great on his campaigns. In his 85th year, when he was living at Cassandra in Thrace, he wrote a work upon Alexander, in which he recorded his careful observations on geography, ethnography, and natural science. The book is highly praised for its trustworthiness, but only fragments of it have reached us. He and Ptolemy were the chief authorities for Arrian’s Anabasis.

75 See, Varnakos (1997, p. 54).

76 See, Varnakos (1997, p. 59).

77 See, Varnakos (1997, p. 62).

78 See, Varnakos (1997, p. 63).

79 << ̔Η Μυστικιστική καὶ Θεολογική ἀριθμητική τῶν Πυθαγορείων ἀντιπρσωπεύει ενα οἰκοδό-

μημα ἀπεράντου πνευματικοῦ υ ψους, μία φιλοσοφική πραγμάτωση τῆς ὀρφικῆς πίστεως, γιά τήν

ἀθανασία τῆς ψυχῆς τοῦ ἀνθρωπίνου ἀλλά καὶ τοῦ συμπαντικοῦ μικροκόσμου, γιά τήν πραγμάτω-

ση τοῦ καθ ̓ εἰκόνα καὶ ὁμοίωση ̓Εκείνου.>> See, Varnakos (1997, p. 64).

80 See, Varnakos (1997, p. 105).

82 See, Arrian, I. 6. 9-10.

83 The Achaemenid Empire (550–330 B.C.), also known as the Persian Empire, was the successor state of the Median Empire, ruling over significant portions of what would become Greater Iran. The Persian and the Median Empire taken together are also known as the Medo-Persian Empire, which encompassed the combined territories of several earlier empires. The Achaemenid Persian Empire was invaded by Alexander the Great, after which it collapsed and disintegrated in 330 B.C. into what later became the Ptolemaic Kingdom and Seleucid Empire, in addition to other minor territories which gained independence at that time.

84 <<Εἰς τόν πατέρα μου ὀφείλω τό ζεῖν, εἰς δέ τόν δάσκαλόν μου ( ̓Αριστοτέλην) τό ευ ζεῖν ...>>.

( ̓Αλέξανδρος).

85 Argead dynasty (Greek: ργεάδαι) was the ancient Greek ruling house of Macedon from about 700 to 310 B.C. Their tradition, as described in ancient Greek historiography, traced their origins to Argos, in southern Greece (hence the name Argeads). Initially the rulers of the homonymous tribe, by the time of Philip II they had expanded their reign further, to include under the rule of Macedon all Upper Macedonian states. The family's most celebrated members were Philip II of Macedon and Alexander the Great, under whose leadership, the kingdom of Macedon gradually gained predominance throughout Greece, defeated the Achaemenid Empire and expanded as far as Egypt and India.

86 See also, Varnakos (1997, p. 154). The virtues for Hellenes are the same today: strictness (αὐστηρότης) towards themselves, leniency (ἐπιείκεια) towards the others, and moderation (μέτρον) for everything.

87 See, Varnakos (1997, pp. 155-158).

88 See, Andronikos (1984).

89 Upon returning to the region, devastated by the wars of 1990s, in Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, eight years later, Dr. Greenberg found the linguistic situation radically different. Within the span of a decade, the Serbo-Croatian unified language had disintegrated into four successor languages (Bosnian, Croatian, Serbian, Montenegrin) on a path to becoming mutually unintelligible. The history of the Balkan region is fraught with linguistic discord, but by any previous standard of linguistic behavior, this event was unprecedented. See, http://www.intersolinc.com/newsletters/newsletter_51.htm

90 See, Dimitsas (1988).

91 In 1948, Cominform, the first official forum of the international communist movement since the dissolution of the Comintern, put into action a plan to take hostage to communist countries children from Greece during the Greek civil war. The aim was to re-educate these children as well as blackmail the populace and the Greek government towards reaching a settlement leading to a partition of Greece and the subsequent creation of an internationalist "Macedonian" Republic. This move has favoured by the Yugoslav dictator Josip Broz Tito and had been a Comitern policy aimed at destroying the national states of the Balkans through the creation of internationalist republics.

92 Professor Stephen G. Miller of Berkley University in the U.S. sent a letter to the Archaeology Magazine, where he proves that the region where Skopje is today was Paeonia and Skopjeans have no right to call their nation “Macedonia” and themselves “Macedonians”. See, Christianiki Bibliographia, Issue 42, Year 38, January-March 2009, pp. 21-23.

93 It is absolutely wrong, minorities to have more rights than the majority. This is the deception of the dark powers that they impose on the entire world; with the anti-humane “human rights and minority issues”, they want to control and destroy the sovereignty of the independent nations. Their “big plan”.

94 See, Andronikos (1984).

95 See, Kallianiotis (2010i).

96 There is a series of articles by the author examining the Macedonian question from different perspectives.

97 The question here is, why are these papers and the majority of the other news media that determine public opinion so biased? How can we trust their subjective news and their prejudice information? Of course, in academics, we have to search only for the truth and nothing else.

98 These names have been used in the past for the inhabitants of Skopje and as toponyms of that region. The ancient Macedonians annexed Paeonia, but they never annexed the region around Scupi (Skopje), which belonged to Dardania. The historically correct name for Skopje, then, is Dardania. The name of the province of Skopje (currently and wrongly, FYROM) was “Vardarska or Vardar with capital Skoplye”. See, Kallianiotis (1992, pp. 58-59).

99 No one has the right to negotiate the Hellenic name “Macedonia” or a compound name with the word “Macedonia” in it, with the South-Slavs of Skopje. Even Kiro Gligorov, the first President of the FYROM said, "We are Slavs who came to this area in the sixth century (AD)... we are not descendants of the ancient Macedonians. Serious historians are laughing with what has been happening in my country. At the rate we are going we will say we are direct descendants of Adam and Eve and Paradise will be proven to be “Macedonian” and thus ours". He is absolutely right; MACEDONIA IS IN GREECE AND IS NOT NEGOTIABLE.

 

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