byIoannis N. Kallianiotis, Ph.D.
The Arthur J. Kania School of Management
University of ScrantonScranton,
Tel (570) 941-7577
Fax (570) 941-4825
<<Γιὰ μένα εἶναι τιμὴ ἡ ἀπόρριψί μου ἀπὸ τὴν λέσχη Μπίλντελμπεργκ. Ὅποιος δεχθῇ νὰ παραδώσῃ στὴν Λέσχη τὴν αὐτοκυριαρχία τῆς Χώρας του εἶναι ἐκλεκτός , ἀλλιῶς ἀπορρίπτεται…Θέση τῆς Λέσχης εἶναι νὰ ὑποβαθμισθοῦν τὰ Ἔθνη καὶ νὰ ὑπάρξῃ μία Νέα Παγκόσμια Τάξη Πραγμάτων, ἀλλὰ θὰ ἀποτύχουν. Μὲ παραμέρισαν, γιατὶ ἀρνήθηκα νὰ παραδώσω τὴν κυριαρχία τῆς Βρετανίας στὴν Εὐρωπαϊκὴ Ἕνωση, ποὺ ἀποτελεῖ τὸ ἀπαραίτητο βῆμα τῆς Λέσχης γιὰ τὴν δημιουργία μιὰς Παγκόσμιας Κυβέρνησης…»
(δήλωση τῆς πρώην πρωθυπουργοῦ τῆς Βρετανίας Μάργκαρετ Θάτσερ στὴν ἐφημερίδα The Spot Light, 10/7/1995). Ὅρα «Βοανεργές», ἀρ. τεύχ. 45, Σεπτέμβριος -Ὀκτώβριος 2009, σ. 93
The Generative Motives of the Forcibly Integrated European Union
This article explores the economic history of Europe and the generative motives before the signing of the Treaty of Rome and some of the prodigious problems that the European Union created to European citizens. The most severe ones are the uncertainty that this controlled union has generated to Europeans; then, the social chaos, which is increasing every day, the economic and political corruption, which is underrated by the immunity of officials, the tremendous debt crisis of its member-nations and their citizens, and lastly, the reduction in its growth (recession) and the enormous unemployment. The independent Europe has a seven thousand years old history, which comes from ancient Greek civilization and is complemented by Christianity. It experienced many difficulties, conflicts, and invasions by barbarians and other neighboring countries. But, at the same time, many good periods with great contributions to the global scene are recorded. Even though it had two world wars, its nations and citizens enjoyed huge growth, autonomy, development, improvement, autarky, progress, and preservation of their indigenous social values. After WWII, some people decided to integrate the entire continent into one union, but their generative motives are not known yet. We see lately, that this prototype of globalization, the forcibly integrated European Union in only 54 years has destroyed the sovereign nation-states and it is ruling undemocratically an entire continent. The current dilemma is that its economic and social policies cannot satisfy any welfare functions for the Europeans, like justice, fairness, allocation, equity, stability, distribution, efficiency, homogeneity, security, sovereignty, independence, self-sufficiency, democracy, and the inherent Christian-value system. Then, it will be best for the Europeans to leave the EU to be disintegrated.
The objective of this paper is to provide a short outline of the long history and the socio-political-economic environment lying behind Europe mostly in the detrimental 20th century. “Europe” and “European Union” are nowadays very political words and make headlines, daily; here, we will try to see what they have in common. The answer is that Europe has been different things at different times, but European Union1 has caused similar problems all the times since its creation, which have been magnified during the recent global financial crisis and the enormous debt crisis in the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the PIIGS nations.2 Also, the goal of the study is to present the visions of the European Union around its integration and to analyze the severe changes that have taken place in the EU country-members after the 1957 Common Market, the 1992 integration, and the 2002 imposition of the euro. European history3 took its unique and unnecessary direction after 1950s because the continent occupies an incomparable position and its people (at least some of them, who are mentioned in its history) had a particular objective, which was to offer some possibilities to all humans to become persons (perfect personalities); but there are so many traps that people with good intention, but lack the true knowledge, can fall and instead of benefit their countries, they can cause serious problems to them, as it was proved during the current debt crises. Of course, it is very hard to describe truthfully, and impossible to analyze the contribution of so many other generous humans and nations to European history.
Europe is the smallest, but the oldest of the five major continents and it is expanded to the Aegean Sea, the Black Sea, the Caucasus Mountains, and the Ural Mountains. To the east of those borders, Asia starts and Europe ends. Thus, these nations outside of these borders are not Europeans. Europe is not only a matter of numbers and geography, but a concept of civilization, which started in Greece, more than seven thousand years ago4 and expended to the rest of Europe.5 The problem, today, is Europeans’ subjection to the dark powers like inferior subjects. Europe’s earliest Neolithic sides have been found in Greece, Chalkidiki (the cave of Petralona). By 5600 B.C., skeletons were found and pottery in this region of North Greece (Macedonia). The areas around the Aegean are those, which gave the first civilization in Europe. The cattle appeared to have been domesticated by 6000 B.C. in Crete6 (Knossos) and on the island of Euboea or Evia (Ευβοια=ευβους),7 which took its name from its good cows, both of which are in Greece. Minos was famed for his ships and Crete was the first naval power, which is continued to Greece even today. Later, this Minoan civilization ended and another emerged in Mycenae, which mobilized forces from many Greek cities and islands to siege Troy (1200 B.C.). The Hellenes came to use “Europe” (Ευρώπη)8 as a name for their territory to the west of the Aegean as distinct from the older lands in Asia Minor.
The ancient Greek civilization is the greatest among all races and called the “classical” one; later the word “classical” became the source of standards, by which subsequent achievements can be measured.9 “There is a quality of excellence about Ancient Greece that brooks few comparisons.”10 These peoples (Hellenes) shared the same language (in an oral and written literature)11 and they recognized a common heritage “Hellenes”, which they did not share with other men. “On most subjects, the Greeks said it first and said it well.”12 They belonged, as they felt, to “Hellas”.13 The non-Greeks were “barbarians”. The achievement and importance of Greece comprehended all sides of life. “The Greeks did more for future civilization than any of their predecessors.”14 All Europe drew interest on the “intellectual capital” Greece laid down, and through Europe the rest of the world has benefited from what Greeks offered to human civilization. Alexander, the son of Philip, is one of those historical Greek figures called “Great”.15 He was a passionate Hellene,16 who believed Achilles17 was his ancestor and carried with him on his campaigns a treasured copy of Homer. He had been tutored by Aristotle. Alexander the Great had a staggering record of success, even though that he died at the age of 33 years old. Thus, the history of Europe and the entire history of the Western civilization is an expansion of the Greek-Christian civilization.18 Indisputable, Roman civilization was descended from the earliest Greek (Hellenic) civilization.19 The European alphabet (Latin one) was given to Romans (Etruscans) from the Greek city-State of Chalcis (Euboea). Today, Europe has changed drastically because of so many influences by different sub-cultures.20 The current “European, or Western, civilization originated from the fusion of German (barbarian) culture and Roman (Hellenic-Christian) civilization during the Dark Ages from the 5th to the 10th century A.D.”21 Of course, history repeats itself. There were even monetary and economic unions in Ancient Greece, i.e., “the Common of Euboeans”, in 2nd century B.C.,22 where they issued a common currency, but they did not last for very long time because of the oppression on the weak member-states from the wealthy and powerful ones.23
From the ancient times, Greeks24 colonized the then known world and later other Europeans were expansionists (some aggressive), conquering, colonizing, trading, proselytizing (except the Orthodox), and spreading their cultures. Initially this cultural expansion to the West, with the Greek colonies, owed much to the moral and ethical ancient Greek culture, but later, it was complemented with the Christian faith (the Revealed Truth).25 Saint Constantine the Great (324-340 A.D.) changed the world history more than any other emperor. He was the founder of the Byzantine Empire the Medieval Greek Empire, which lasted for eleven centuries (324 A.D.-1453 A.D.). Thus, he founded Christian Europe and he continues to protect it, especially, its South-East region. This Christianization gave to the European world a unity and cultural cohesiveness that was the ideological foundation of its civilization. Unfortunately, during the 9th century, barbarians from the West (Francs) occupied Rome and imposed their own “innovations” on this homogeneous Hellenic-Christian civilization (the Orthodox dogma). The schism between West and East (Byzantium) actually started during that period26 and Europe will never recover spiritually. The Muslim conquests (632 A.D. -732 A.D.) caused serious problems to the Western Europe and a great territorial loss for the Byzantine Empire, until they occupied it in 1453.
In the 14th century, Europe descended into an era of crisis and contraction (occupation) that lasted more than 100 years and about 400 years for the Balkans. An increasing materialism started and a decreasing spirituality of the Roman Catholic Church; even the “pope himself for a time became a tool of the French king”27 and the Great Schism between Rome and Constantinople, which took place in 1054 A.D., contributed to the isolation of the Latin church from its other sister churches, the Orthodox Patriarchates of the East.28 Then, national monarchies started emerging and a new wave of economic expansion and revitalization of European intellectual life began. Commerce and industry expanded in 15th and 16th century, gold and silver poured into Europe from the exploitation of the New World,29 prices rose, and a worldwide pattern of trade with Europe was going on. Furthermore, in the 14th century, this intellectual and artistic revival of the Renaissance started in Italy from the Greeks, who survived after the fall of Constantinople and moved to the west and spread to northern Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries. It was a revival of classical learning and an artistic flowering without parallel in history. During that period, this confidence of the Western world [the South-Eastern part of Europe was occupied by the barbarian Mongolians (Seljuk Turks)]30 found new outlets beyond the frontiers of Europe. Navigators journeyed the world. Their discoveries, followed unfortunately, by colonization and exploitation, reached the Americas, Africa, Asia and India, and Australia.
Lastly, the Roman Catholic Christian faith of Western Europe is declining and the heresies are producing theological varieties and denominational atomism and ultimately, Western Europe assumed the triumph of secularism. The East part of Europe stayed firm to its Traditional Orthodox Christian Faith31 and even though that the Balkans were under occupation from the barbarians of the East, they survived, due to their strong traditional faith.32 A revolution in science and economics33 (capitalism and communism) started and still is going on, today; but from revolution has unfolded to occupation. Crises, also, started from the 17th century, like destructive wars, compounded of religious motives and dynastic ambitions, filled most of the period and brought in civil commotions, revolutions, and two destructive international wars in the 20th century. According to all historians, “The Greeks are the only people in history who have made four major contributions to human culture and civilization (the spring of Minoan Crete, the summer of fifth-century Athens, the golden autumn of the Alexandrian empire, and the wintry splendour of Byzantium), have so competitive a spirit that they cannot tolerate for long the exceptional brilliance of one man.”34 The 20th century is also the period of the creation of the equally destructive European Union. We hope and wish that this Union will not cause the end of the European identity and history before the end of the 21st century. Unfortunately, “contemporary history is vulnerable to all sorts of political pressure”,35 but we are responsible to write the Truth, which is the duty of men of letters. “Europe” is a relatively modern idea of the earlier concept of “Christendom” because the entire continent was Christian and its citizens had a common Christian identity,36 but for “European Union”, no one has any idea of what it is and what its suspicious objectives are. The only democratic solution for the European nations is the referendum, where people can decide if they want to join the EU or the EMU, but they do not allow this process. How is it possible that the Union is a democratic entity?
II. EUROPE DIVIDED AND FORCIBLY INTEGRATED:
THEORIES AND PRACTICIES
All these 20th century wars (WWI, 1914-1918 and WWII, 1939-1945) among European nations had divided Europe and many ideas appeared having as their objective a benevolent integration of all European nations. At the end of World War II, Great Britain had assumed a major responsibility in the eastern Mediterranean, providing assistance to the Greek government in its war against communist rebels (αντάρτες)37 and to Turkey in its efforts to resist Soviet demands for a larger voice in the control of the Dardanelles. In February 1947, the British informed the United States that they no longer had the financial strength to continue this role. Appearing before a joint session of Congress on March 12, 1947, President Harry S. Truman (1884-1972) called for the appropriation of $400 million for military and economic assistance to Greece and Turkey.38 Congress quickly approved the President’s appeal for aid to Greece and Turkey.
The failure of the League of Nations to prevent World War II disillusioned many persons, who had expected much from international organizations and co-operations. On April 25, 1945, in a conference including representatives of fifty-one nations convened in San Francisco and drafted a charter for the permanent structure of the United Nations.39 In June 1947, George C. Marshall (1880-1959), the American Secretary of State, proposed a broad program of American assistance to help all of Europe recover economically. In July 1947, in response to Secretary of State Marshall’s invitation, representatives of sixteen (16) European nations met in Paris to draw up a joint request to the United States for financial aid to assist in their economic recovery. In April of 1948, the U.S. Congress passed the Foreign Assistance Act, establishing the European Recovery Program or “Marshall Plan”, and authorized an initial sum of $5.3 billion to be distributed as loans and grants by the newly created Economic Cooperation Administration (ECA). The recipient nations formed the Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) to administer the aid in Europe and pledged themselves to a long-term program of mutual assistance and cooperation.
Further, a number of structural changes in Europe made a deep impression on social attitudes. The “Welfare State”, which provided a wide range of services such as Britain’s National Health Service (1948), West Germany’s model pension scheme, or France’s massive HLM projects for cheap housing, removed many of the traditional anxieties about ill health, unemployment, homelessness, and old age.40 Greece followed with a variety of social programs (pension, national health, public education, unemployment compensation, etc.). Rising wages turned the masses into “consumers”, pressured to become big spenders by aggressive advertising, social emulation, and lines of credit by banks (irrational exuberance”). This procedure increased enormously the indebtedness of individuals and nations.41 Consumerism certainty fuelled our market oriented capitalistic system, but it turned material advancement into the only goal, not the means to advance personally and spiritually. It threatened to reduce politics to a debate about the economy and nothing else. It taught young people that possessions alone brings fulfillment. Since it put a dazzling supply of desirable, but unnecessary goods before peoples’ eyes, they buy them without even paying for them, they just sign their names (credit cards and out of control borrowing) and then, came the current debt crisis, which made individuals and nations bound of the financial institutions (power moved from governments to banks). Also, capital structure theories for our firms were recommended 100% debt and all this interest on debt is tax deductable (subsidized by the poor citizens). This is the social cost that we have to pay, today, because we forgot the moderation and modesty.
Other problems that gradually appeared were the immorality, the “sexual revolution”, the criminal “family planning”, the disrespect towards the elders, and the undermining of all the values of the 1950s with these evolutions, which led us to today’s crises in all aspects of our life. In a few years all conventional mores were destroyed and our young people have serious psychological problems, today. It eliminated the social shame of extramarital relationships, children borne without knowing their father, other keeled by their parents before their birth, homosexuality,42 divorces, unmarried cohabitations, same sex marriages, adoptions of children by homosexuals (αρσενοκοιτας), and numerous other perversions. In most countries it was accompanied by the liberal laws on obscenity, on toleration, on “liberty”, on “democracy”, on “human rights”, on abortion, and many others. The church, the traditionalists, and the conservatives, after their marginalization, have no voice any more;43 liberals, socialists, globalists, psychologists, and pseudo-scientists know everything and they are the advisors of the ignorant decision makers. Of course, what they hate most are the fundamental values of Faith, Country, Family, marriage, education, tradition, and all the other virtues that led humanity for thousands of years. For the first time, Christianity in Europe has become a minority belief and with its ecumenism44 and globalization will lose its purpose. Different denominations, heterodox, and allodox can not be united because what will come out from this mixture will be a New Babylon, as the world planners have already dreamed it and have imposed it on poor politicians, who are working for its creation.45
In February 1948, a Soviet-inspired coup in Czechoslovakia overthrew that country’s coalition government and established a communist dictatorship. As it was mentioned above, between 1948 and 1952, the European Recovery Program (ERP), the Marshall Plan, provided about $13 billion in American assistance for the economic revival of Western Europe.46 In February 1947, France and Britain signed a treaty of alliance and in October Belgium, the Netherlands, and Luxembourg ratified an agreement for the Benelux customs union. In March 1948, these five nations signed the Treaty of Brussels, providing for joint consultation and cooperation in economic, social, and military affairs. In 1949, they were joined by Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Ireland, and Italy in the Council of Europe, with headquarters at Strasbourg, France.47 Greece, Turkey, Iceland, Austria, Switzerland, West Germany, Cyprus, and Malta were subsequently admitted. In mid-1949, the Western powers proceeded with their plans to establish the Federal Republic of Germany. The Soviets responded by creating an East German State, the German Democratic Republic, in their zone.
On April 4, 1949, many member nations of the Council of Europe plus Portugal met in Washington and signed a treaty (the North Atlantic Pact) with the United States and Canada, which established the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO).48 The signatories pledged themselves to mutual assistance in the event of armed aggression against any one of them, and they undertook far-reaching military collaboration under the direction of the North Atlantic Council.49 Greece and Turkey joined in 1952 and in 1955 West Germany was admitted to the Council of Europe and to NATO. During the same period, the international communist movement suffered continual setbacks, in its attempt to gain power in Western Europe.50 In January 1949, the Soviet Union created the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) in an attempt to mold the economies of Eastern Europe into a more cohesive union. Thus, the division of Europe into two rival ideological camps became more pronounced and apparently more nearly permanent than ever. “The Cold War”, to define the East-West struggle, had entered Western vocabularies. In October 1949, Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976) proclaimed the establishment of the People’s Republic of China, formed an alliance with Soviet Union, and initiated a campaign against American influence and power in East Asia.51 On June 25, 1950, the army of North Korea attacked South Korea. The United States with its new NATO members52 intervened to support South Korea. In July 1953, an armistice was signed and under its terms, Korea remained divided at the 38th parallel and after this war, the U.S. took the global reigns.53 World War II reduced Great Britain to the position of a second-rank power and left the country with serious economic and financial problems.54 Today, England tries to be closed to the U.S., so it can derive, from contact, some power from the over-indebted “super-power”.55
In summary, the two world wars of the 20th century, with their accompanying horrors, show the weaknesses, the poverty, and the malice of our controlled leaders, who have accepted some inferior philosophies and heresies56 and try to impose them on peoples and sovereign nations through integrations, globalization, and force (by creating the financial crisis). All these will fail because above their actions is a Divine Providence, who guides humanity. These pseudo-leaders did and unfortunately continue to do, much to undermine the faith, the hope, the tradition, the indigenous culture, the independence, and the progress of Europeans. Furthermore, while advances in science, increases in material wealth and goods, and progresses in technology greatly improved the material quality of life, but at the same time the enormous debts and deficits increased the uncertainties, the financial crises, the unhappiness, the enormous austerity, and the threats confronting humanity, which become worse day after day. As a consequence of these experiences of the 20th and the new 21st century, people and especially young are completely disoriented, without traditional values, misinformed, uneducated, ignorant, and without true models. Of course, every individual in Europe must be optimistic and have to work hard to become a true person (as Christians as they are), independently of what the rest of the world is doing. The same must hold for a nation, it must work hard by using its recourses, its civilization, and its peoples to reach the highest welfare, according to its value system and independently from this forced integration of Europe.
It seemed that one objective of the European integration (European Federation) 57 was the “abolition of the division of Europe into national sovereign states”.58 They believe that every European problem will be resolved with the creation of a European Federation.59 But, they worry that “no leaders of undeniable political stature raised a strong voice in favor of a federated Europe”.60 Winston Churchill’s speech at Zurich University on September 19, 1946 influenced the shape of postwar Europe. “Europe must unite before war destroys the continent, its glorious civilization, and perhaps much of the rest of the world.” He called for a “United States of Europe” led by France and Germany, but he excluded Britain from his grand European project. [Europe] “is the fountain of Christian faith and Christian ethics”. … “Yet it is from Europe that have sprung that series of frightful nationalistic quarrels,…” “We must build a kind of United States of Europe.” “…my friend President Truman had expressed his interest and sympathy with this great design.” “In this last struggle crimes and massacres have been committed for which there is no parallel since the invasions of the Mongols in the fourteenth century and no equal at any time in human history.” “If at first all the states of Europe are not willing or able to join the union, we must nevertheless proceed to assemble and combine those who will and those who can.”61 This did not happen in Europe, but instead a forcibly integration was imposed on 27 independent nations, so far and will be continued.
On May 9, 1950, Robert Schuman, France’s foreign minister, outlined a plan to unite under a single authority the coal and steel industries of Europe’s bitterest enemies, France and Germany. The purpose of the plan, which was developed by Jean Monnet, was to begin building a peaceful, united Europe one step at a time. France, Germany, Italy, and the Benelux countries eventually responded by creating the European Coal and Steel Community in 1952. “Europe will not be made all at once, or according to a single plan. It will be built through concrete achievements which first create a de facto solidarity. The coming together of the nations of Europe requires the elimination of the age-old opposition of France and Germany. Any action taken must in the first place concern these two countries.”62
In Rome, on March 25, 1957, the six member countries of the European Coal and Steel Communities (ECSC) signed treaties establishing the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (EURATOM). These two treaties are often called the “Treaties of Rome”63 (the ECSC Treaty was signed in Paris on April 18, 1951). And their aim was for building “an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe”. In the preamble of the EEC treaty, “economic and social progress” seems to take precedence over preserving and strengthening “peace and liberty”.64 With this free trade, country-members lost a significant proceed for their treasuries from the abolition of import taxes. This increased governments’ debts and caused unemployment inside the countries. The worst is that peace and liberty have completely vanished.
Jean Monnet65 was the “father of Europe”, who believed that nations should adopt common rules governing their behavior and create common institutions to apply these rules.66 Actually, with all these innovated ruses, the 20th century has changed the manner of life more for every one than all the eight thousands of years of man’s progress put together. For what reason all this rush? What is in their minds that they do not want to make it explicit to the people of their nations? Of course, the answer is obvious; it is something very bad (conspiracy) and they try to cover it, so they can avoid the reaction of their citizens. In the mean time, they wrote laws to suppress any people’s uprising. This Union is not a democratic entity and it unveiled its true self during the latest debt crisis.
Also, De Gaulle believed in EU, but he criticized the supranational67 vision of Europe as unrealistic and undesirable. He argued instead for a “concert of European States”, where national governments coordinated their policies extensively, but did not give up their rights as sovereign entities to a European “superstate”.68 Some years later, representatives of the twelve members of the EC signed the Single European Act (SEA) in February 1986 and saw it implemented in July 1987.69 Of course, the majority of Europeans reject the notion that “Europe” meant the absorption of European nations into a single bureaucratized European “superstate”. De Gaulle was a great leader and patriot for France. Many from the current leaders, there, are not even French (sic).
Others believe that the EU would succeed only if each member state was allowed to maintain its own identity. EU must be a “family of nations” and not a federalist vision of dependent states, as some misled leaders believe. Charles De Gaulle and Margaret Thatcher70 represent this view of Euroskeptics, too. The EU belongs to all its members and not to the Brussels bureaucrats and lately, controlled by the corrupted and speculative market (the Goldman Sachs club and the globalists club). It must reflect the traditions and aspirations of all its member-nations. A willing and active cooperation among independent sovereign nations could have been the best way to build a successful EU. To try to suppress nationhood and especially, in small member-nations and concentrate power at the center of a European conglomerate would be highly damaging and would jeopardize the objectives Europe seeks to achieve. European nations must work more closely together, but this does not require power to be centralized in Brussels or decisions to be taken by an appointed, value neutral, ignorant of history, and unaware of the indigenous values of the members, bureaucracy and institutions. EU must be in a way, which preserves the different traditions, parliamentary powers, domestic constitutions, national public policies, and sense of national pride in one’s own country, especially in countries with many thousands years of history and paideia, because these have been the source of Europe’s vitality through the centuries.
In addition, Jacques Delors was the president of the Commission of the EC, he was elected to the European Parliament, and served as minister of finance in France. He was in favor of federalism and against nationalism. Altiero Spinelli, an Italian Deputy and a member of the European Parliament, was the founder of the European Federalist Movement. His goal was the individual states to cede their sovereignty to common democratic institutions.71 David Mitrany argued for a transformation of the way people think about international relations, particularly the prevention of war. His “functional alternative” aimed at world, not European unity. Nevertheless, he had a profound effect on European activists and early integration theorists, especially, the neofunctionalists.72 Ernst B. Haas recognized that functional integration was taking place in Europe, but that functionalism as a theory had failed to explain why decision-makers chose to integrate in some areas and not others.73
Further, Karl W. Deutsch helped revolutionize the study of international relations by introducing “scientific and quantitative” methods.74 Leon Lindberg illustrates early neofunctionalism’s systematic approach to explaining integration, as well as its enthusiasm for a European project that promised to “move beyond the nation-state as a basic framework for action”.75 Hoffmann argued that the states of Europe were still self-interested entities with clear interests, despite their willingness to engage in closer cooperation in areas of “low politics”, such as agriculture and trade. The members of the EC stubbornly hung on to the sovereignty that counts –control over foreign policy, national security, and the use of force (“high politics”) - while only reluctantly bargaining away control over important aspects of their economies in exchange for clear material benefits. Thus functionalism as a method of integration reaches its limits very quickly, failing to take Europe “beyond the nation-state”. On the contrary, integration, according to Hoffmann, is “a vindication of the nation-state as the basic unit”.76
Federalists, functionalists, and neofunctionalists in the postwar period were largely concerned with the political results of integration, even if some of them paid little attention to the political dimension of the integration process. The European federalists, the idealistic “true believers” in a United States of Europe believe that the most democratic and just way to prevent war and promote prosperity in Europe is to create a European super-state with full federal powers. They were trapped by the evil and inhumane globalists. Most maintained that functional integration had failed to dent national sovereignty. John Pinder has been an outspoken federalist for several decades.77 He believes in federal institutions for Europe, but he is critical of the federalists for failing to think practically about how to achieve their goal.
In addition, Bela Balassa defines economic integration, identifies its stages, discusses political and ideological aspects of the integration process, and specifies what he means by “economic welfare”.78 The adoption of the 1992 Program and the passage of the Single European Act (1986)79 revitalized the EC and market a new stage in the integration process. Wayne Sandholtz and John Zysman80 opened the theoretical debate in 1989 with an attempt to influence the EU integration process by focusing on supranational institutions. These people are making different theoretical and hypothetical arguments, but their objective is the “ultimate common one”: one world, one government (actually, one global deceit). The first effects of this delusion appeared during this imposed crisis on poor Europeans. What it follows the current debt crisis is beyond human imagination (the beginning of the end of Europe).
National governments have become sets of actors in a complex decision-making system. European nations have lost control, completely; they have become dependent states.81 The supranationalists have done a good work to persuade the naïve and the ignorant followers towards their ultimate objective, “one world, one government, one currency, one god”. Political leaderships of the member-states are misguided and misinformed or just imposed by those “experts”. Also, it is very difficult for a normal human being to understand these anti-inter-governmentalists “scholars”. They try to persuade us that European Union is a necessary structure for Europeans. Actually, these supranational institutions have been constructed to satisfy the self-interest of their actors and try to increase their power, hiding behind a legal mask, which has been composed by them, and is emphasizing Community Law and Regulations. This Union is actually a political and a legalistic union imposed undemocratically on Europeans by foreign powers (“dark powers”).82
Finally, some philosophical questions arise, here: Why nation-states cease to be wholly sovereign? Why they voluntarily mingle, merge, and mix with other neighbors so as to lose the factual attributes of sovereignty?83 Why they do not allow referenda for their citizens and take these serious decisions undemocratically? How was it possible to fool the citizens to vote for these traitors as their leaders? Most of the writings on EU are of a highly technical nature and the advisors of the EU leaders are narrow-minded technocrats. For this reason the EU was led to the erosion of members’ independence in the monetary, fiscal, and political field, which creates a serious dilemma for Europeans. During the current global financial crisis and the European debt crisis, austerity measures from this supranational EU (its ECB84 and the other international institutions, i.e., IMF) have destroyed the socio-economic structure and have abolish the public policies,85 of the member-nations, have deepened the recession, have darted the unemployment to 40%, and have derailed the investments. Then, the recovery for EU members is inexistent in the immediate future.
III. SOME CONCLUDING REMARKS
The forcibly integrated Europeans make up Europe, its long history, its civilization, its values, its traditions, and its Christian faith, but without their will they were trapped in European Union, that they do not know its generative motives. Today, this old Christendom does not comprise these unique societies, nations, and indigenous cultures any more. We may formulate and embrace as many philosophies, theories, economic systems, and compile as many timetables or lists of significant events (mostly wars and conflicts in Europe), as we wish to help young people understand the past, but we must always return to the simple reality that people (individuals) are at the foundation of every European nation and each one of these nations is distinguishable because of the homogeneity of its people and their common destiny. These people in any country have given everything they owned, many even their lives, to improve the lives of their fellow countrymen and the lives of their descendants and we cannot ignore them. Can we ignore Leonidases,86 Socrateses, Pericleses, Alexanders, Constantines, Makrygiannises, and others? They are tied to the events of their times and to the European history because of their contribution to European civilization. It is necessary to give the humanistic view of European civilization by taking into consideration people, individually and sovereign nations independently.
In the current work the recent history of Europe is presented and the motives for its integration and some theories are tried to decipher. The two world wars of the twentieth century, with their accompanying horrors, did much to undermine the faith in the True God (Christianity) and the faith in the inevitability of human progress that was an influential legacy of the seven thousand year old European (actually, Greek) history. Furthermore, while advances in science and technology greatly improved the material quality of life, they also increased the uncertainties and threats confronting humanity. As a consequence of these experiences of the twentieth and worse the twenty-first century, philosophy, religion (traditional Christianity), literature, arts, and education in general, became increasingly more diverse in their consideration of the human experience in a troubled age (the age of integration, globalization, debt crisis, and apostasy).87 Europe is a continent with many sovereign nations, which have their own history, civilization, dogmas, freedom, language, paideia, and values, but also something in common, their Greek-Christian foundations. For this reason, Europeans are fighting to preserve their values, democracy, liberty, and independence for thousands of years. Thus, it will be impossible for them to surrender these values to a supranational organization (like the EU and the EMU). Each one of these nations is unique and they should not be unified because common public policy and uniform sub-culture cannot apply to them. It would be better, if these countries were independent and have only some interdependence and cooperation among themselves, depending on the similarities, common dogmatic beliefs, and the degree of homogeneity that they have. Now, any common policy, rules, regulations, currency, or anything else does not seem to work and the cost of all these efforts exceeds their benefits. The current debt crisis proved that this union was a wrong and suspicious choice for Europeans. The worst of all is the common currency and common Euro-Constitution, which undermine and abolish the country-states’ social welfare and Constitutions. The conclusion is obvious; this union is just a monetary and controlled by the dark powers political (without common foreign and defense policy) union with a very uncertain future. We saw their disagreement during the debt crises of its Euro-zone members.88 We wait to see their reaction during Turkey’s accession. Terrorist attacks in Madrid, London,89 Barcelona, Bilbao, Denmark, Warsaw, and France had made Europeans believe that these Muslim aggressions are threatening European civilization.90 Then, the accession of an Asian (non-European) Muslim country (Turkey)91 in the EU will overturn the entire European philosophy of this union.
European citizens, as it has been observed, do not trust the EMU, the EU, its institutions, and their own controlled governments, which it would be very difficult for the union and its citizens to cooperate and coexist for a very long time. Many Europeans believe that decisions are taken by various unofficial agencies (“the wise men”) outside of the union and then, they are endorsed through more official consensus-making agencies, like the OECD,92 IMF,93 NATO, U.N., WTO,94 EU, ECB, and other EU institutions, again acting as non-European.95 In other words, they feel unsecured, unprotected, and the worst of all, betrayed by their own national governments.96 Even, Czech President Klaus assailed the EU as undemocratic and said it should halt further centralization of powers.97 Consequently, the future of this union is very uncertain.98 Then, if the EU does more harm than good, it should be abolished. Since January 1, 2005, there are no restrictions on imports from China. This will destroy all manufacturing and retail industries in the EU.99 Also, China is modernizing its military in ways that provide the capability to conduct surprise attacks, perhaps far from home, the U.S. Pentagon said.100 In addition, a Chinese scientific research center has built the fastest supercomputer ever made, replacing the U.S. as maker of the swiftest machine.101
Recently (in 2007, before the financial crisis), EU celebrated triumphantly its 50th anniversary since the Treaty of Rome on March 25, 1957. But this union had so far more failures than successes and its current crisis is indicative of its unimportance. It did not succeed to achieve its Constitution and had to change its name (to “Treaty of Lisbon”), its common defense and foreign policy, and to determine its ultimate goals and objectives. EU’s first objectives were social and civil, then became economic, and now are just political; the prototype of globalization. It was continuously expanded and accepted nations and cultures, which have nothing in common among the north, the south, and the east European ones. The new expansions will cause serious problems and might cause its dissolution, which is the hope of the European citizens,102 but there will be conflicts, expulsions, and new wars, which will lead countries back in 1950s. In numbers, there may, now, be less Europeans than ever before, who feel confidence about a growing European institutional unity and some of them feel that their governments are not democratic because they never used any referenda for the critical issues in the Union. Forced privatization in country-members is allowing effective takeover of the economy, the public wealth, and the security of the country by foreign banks and businesses.103 The current financial crises and austerities have caused enormous discontent towards this inhumane union. Such measures, undermining economic growth and political sovereignty; also, restrict domestic uniform development, take over domestic public wealth, suppress social welfare, and reduce political democracy to a shadow of obscurity. After cutting the European subsidies the “economic miracle” of the union will disappear. European citizens are not enthusiastic at all and when the subsidies will be cut and restrictions will grow, the opposition towards the union will increase.104 Actually, we are not worried if Greece will be driven out from the EU, we are very anxious now that Greece is a member of this strange union.
Finally, European history and the recent suspicious generative motives of EU should help us, as social scientists (economists) and our students, to understand what the past was, what the present is, and what might be the future of this continent. Of course, they try to create a common European identity or self-consciousness for more than 500 million people from closed to 30 different countries; and some ignorant leaders want to open the doors also to anti-Christians non-Europeans. What will be the future of this mixture of nations is impossible to be predicted. With this limited knowledge (due to overspecialization) that scientists have today, it would be very difficult to do any correct analysis and derive an accurate inference for our complex social world. But, social scientists have to protect individual countries’ and their citizens’ interests. They must care for democracy, and their concern must be for the people, who suffer from the EU restrictions and unfair competition among the EU members and the unreasonable agreements with third-world countries (WTO). European citizens cannot support the corrupted pseudo-leaders. Then, how was it possible for Europe to fall in this trap? I do not want to make any pessimistic predictions, but what has happened to the major European civilizations and historical processes in the past is over by now. The past successes have been removed from the EU and there is no chance of a repeat in the future. Europe became the first experiment of the current inhumane globalization. There will be no new “golden century”, “Cultural era”, “Christian Europe”, and no “new European age”. The most of the decisions in Europe are made today by non-Europeans. A major and fatal mistake for Europe! This current and worse, the future poor secular Europe was once coterminous and synonymous with Christendom and now, it is a post-Christian and neo-pagan (even worse) mixture of lost people. The situation today in Europe is similar to the one that existed 2000 years ago, during the period of the falling Roman Empire. Consequently, the objective of the EU has been satisfied; it created the “New Roman Empire”. This is a true dilemma! But, it is obvious that there is a struggle between good and evil. Of course, the results of this battle are known to every prudent man.
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* * Economics/Finance Department, The Arthur J. Kania School of Management, University of Scranton, Scranton, PA 18510, U.S.A. Presented at the 38th Annual Conference of the Northeast Business & Economics Association (NBEA) at Sheraton Society Hill Hotel in Philadelphia, PA, U.S.A., November 3-5, 2011. I would like to acknowledge the assistance provided by Justin Purohit and Kevin McLaughlin. Financial support (professional travel expenses, etc.) was provided by FRAP funds (Provost Office) and the Henry George Funds. The usual disclaimer applies. Then, all remaining errors are mine.
1 Vladimir Putin proposed indirectly, the revival of the Soviet Empire, with the creation of a Euro-Asian Union, in which countries of the ex-Soviet Union and Russia will participate. (dailynews24.gr, October 5, 2011).
2 These nations are: Portugal, Ireland, Italy, Greece, and Spain. Of course, their citizens are not piigs, they are humans, who are not responsible for the current (corrupted Wall Street’s) financial crisis. A better nickname for them could be: GIPSI, who try to find loans from usurers, like EU, IMF, and elsewhere. The President of Argentina warns that “the IMF will have an ugly end for Greece”. See, <<Τό Δ.Ν.Τ. θά εχει ασχημο τέλος στήν Ελλάδα>>, Christian Vivliografia, October10,2011.http://christianvivliografia.wordpress.com/page/2/ http://christianvivliografia.wordpress.com/2011/10/10/%c2%ab%cf%84%e1%bd%b8-%ce%b4-%ce%bd-%cf%84-%ce%b8%e1%bd%b0-%e1%bc%94%cf%87%ce%b5%ce%b9-%e1%bc%84%cf%83%cf%87%ce%b7%ce%bc%ce%bf-%cf%84%ce%ad%ce%bb%ce%bf%cf%82-%cf%83%cf%84%e1%bd%b4%ce%bd-%e1%bc%91/ .
3 See, Cameron (1997) for an extensive economic history of Europe and of the entire world.
5 Greeks are aboriginal (αυτοχθονες), descendants of Pelasgians (Πελασγων). See, Stephanos Mytilinaios, http://www.hellasontheweb.org/2010-04-05-22-32-27/2010-04-06-11-49-23/1610-2011-08-13-12-31-30
6 See, Roberts (1997, p. 12).
7 See, Kallianiotis (1995, p. 26).
8 In ancient Greek mythology, Europa was a Phoenician princess whom Zeus abducted after assuming the form of a dazzling white bull. He took her to the island of Crete, where she gave birth to Minos, Rhadamanthus and Sarpedon. For Homer, Europe (Greek: Εὐρώπη) was a mythological queen of Crete, not a geographical designation. Later, Europa stood for central-north Greece, and by 500 B.C. its meaning had been extended to the lands to the north. The name of Europa is of uncertain etymology. One theory suggests that it is derived from the Greek roots meaning broad (εὐρ(υ)- eur(u)-) and eye (ὤψ/ὠπ-/ὀπτ- ōps/ōp-/op(t)-), hence Eurṓpē, "wide-gazing", "broad of aspect" (compare with glaukōpis (γλαυκῶπις 'grey-eyed') Athena or boōpis (βοὠπις 'ox-eyed') Hera). Broad has been an epithet of Earth itself in the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European religion. See also, Kallianiotis (2011f).
9 With their wisdom, like: “Moderation in all things” (Παν μέτρον αριστον), they set the foundations and advanced the world.
10 See, Davies (1998, p. 95).
11 See, Kallianiotis (2010k).
12 See, Snodgrass (1998).
13Helleneshadthesameblood,thesamelanguage,andthesamereligion(ομαιμον, ομόγλωσσον καὶ ομόθρησκον), according to Herodotus (̔Ηρόδοτος), 5th century B.C. See, Kallianiotis (2007, p. 179).
14 See, Roberts (1997, p. 43). The entire world owes trillions of euros to Greece in intellectual rights because every intellectual achievement came from Ancient and Byzantine Hellas, as a member of the European Parliament said, recently.
15 See, Kallianiotis (1992, 2010a, b, c, d, e, f, g, h, and i, and 2011a, b, c, i, and j).
16 See, Roberts (1997, p. 47).
17 See, Homer’s Iliad.
18 The European civilization was a Hellenic-Orthodox civilization up to the 9th century A.D., before its barbaric invasions from West and North. See, Sakarellos (2005).
19 See, Jones (1997), Kebric (1997), Vasiliev (1984), Paparrigopoulos (2003), and Fouyas (1999). For this reasons, EuropeansareenviousofGreeks.See,<<Γιατί Φθονουν τούς Ελληνες̀>> Χριστιανική Βιβλιογραφία, 31
20 This multi-culturalism was imposed on Europe, lately, and will destroy the European identity, because these stranger cultures are against the European ones and especially, against the European religion, Christianity.
21 See, Blum, Cameron, and Barnes (1970, p. 4).
22 See, Vranopoulos (1995, p. 168).
23 Does this remind to us today’s behavior of the wealthy EU members on the poor ones? Yes, it is exactly the same!
24 Greek colonies were spreading to all over Mediterranean Sea (Europe, Africa, and Asia) and the Black Sea. They transferred the Hellenic civilization to the entire Europe and for this reason, the estimate for the people, who have Greek origin must be over 100 millions all over the world. See also, Fouyas (1999, p. 55)
25 “The hour has come for the Son of Man to be glorified [by Greeks].” (John 12: 23).
26 See, Sakarellos (2005).
27 See, Blum, Cameron, and Barns (1970, p. 5).
28 An example is the failure of the Synod in Ferrara and Florence (1438/1439). See, Stephanides (1990, pp. 390-396). The crusades of the West against the East (Byzantium) weakened the Empire until it fell to the Mongolian Ottomans. These western “Christian brothers” looted all treasures of Byzantium, which “adorn” the western museums and churches, today and the Ancient Greek manuscripts, which contributed to the European Renaissance. Amazing justice! See, Vasiliades (1993) and Frangopoulos (1993).
29 This exploitation of the New World continues even today by utilizing its resources, economic and military power, to pursue their “ultimate objective”.
30 Currently, there is a movement by the Muslim Turkey to unite all the Muslim nations from Asia Minor, Africa, and Asia up to Indonisia; the “Arabic Spring” or the “Islamic Neo-Ottoman Storm”. See, http://www.hellasontheweb.org/2009-05-25-15-24-30/2009-07-04-17-37-26/11817-2011-11-16-16-50-24
31 This lasted until 1920s, where some orthodox foolish pseudo-leaders abandoned their 2,000 years old tradition and joined the pope and later the World Council of Churches, where 349 “churches” try to find a common god. In a few years everything will be common: “common currency”, “common god”, “common government”, “common language”, “common culture”, and “common submission”.
32 A few Balkan people, due to pressure from Turks, became Muslims and were lost for ever from Europe. They moved to Asia Minor after the exchange of populations and now, they are Muslim-Turks. Of course, there are over nine millions Europeans in Turkey, who were cut in Asia Minor and are secret-Christians (crypto-Christians) today, due to fear of persecutions.
33 Of course, Economics is 2500-years old; Xenophon, a disciple of Socrates, is the “Father of Economics” (Oeconomicos=Οικονομικός) and not these Europeans in the 18th century. The word “nomisma” (νόμισμα), meaning coin, was used by Greeks, also specialization, futures contracts, control of inflation, protectionism and other trade policies, with which to increase income and employment inside the state, and many other terms used in Economics today. According to Herodotus, money, in the sense of coinage (drachmas), began to circulate in the Aegean in the early 7th century B.C. See also, Davies (1998, p. 101). And in 2002, without any shame or any respect, they abandoned a historic currency of 2,700 years old, the Greek Drachma. Incredible betrayal!..
34 See, Bradford (1980, p. 55).
35 See, Davies (1998, p. 2).
36 See, Davies (1998, p. 7).
37 This war between the Greek government and the communists lasted for four years, until August 29, 1949, where rebels were defeated; but their cruelty towards the Greek civilians, language, culture, Orthodoxy, history, the army, the gendarmerie, the clergy, and the nation per se, is unique in the Greek history and continues even today, by controlling the higher education and the show business (entertainment).
38 President Truman expressed what came to be known as the Truman Doctrine: “I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressure.” See, Viault (1990, p. 503). Unfortunately, this policy has been transformed completely the last decades.
39 Unfortunately, after 66 years of its existence, the U.N. has not succeeded in its objectives to preserve international peace. The law of jungle prevails and it is becoming worse every day. “The U.S. politics are of global control”. See, Chomsky (2004).
40 Now, the “invasion” of Troika destroyed completely the welfare state in the Euro-zone.
41 Germany defaulted twice on its loans payments to the U.S.A., in 1923 and in 1950s. See, Kallianiotis (2011k).
42 See, Saint Neilos the Myrbearing about this deadly sin.
43See, Εμμαν. Μικρογιαννάκη, ––Τό Γενικό Σχέδιο· Νά μήν εχουμε Εθνος, νά μήν εχουμε
Ιστορία, νά μήν εχουμε Γλωσσα>>Χριστιανική Βιβλιογραφία.
44 Ecumenism is the mean (instrument), that the dark powers are using since 1920, for the destruction of Orthodoxy. Διαχριστιανικός οικουμενισμός (ενωσις ολων των αιρεσεων μέ τήν Ορθοδοξίαν) καὶ διαθρησκειακός οικουμενισμός (ενωσις Χριστιανων καὶ αλλοθρήσκων).But, Orthodox know their Ecclesiastical history very well and they are not going to bow down.
45 See, Davies (1998, pp. 1077-1080).
46 See, Viault (1990, p. 504).
47 Many persons hoped that from this organization a United States of Europe would grow.
48 The twelve signers were Great Britain, France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg, United States, Canada, Iceland, Denmark, Norway, Italy, and Portugal.
49 Unfortunately, NATO has failed in its objectives, too. In 1974 Turkey, a NATO member invaded another member, the Greek Cyprus and even though that the U.N. has issued many resolutions against Turkey; NATO did nothing to avert the occupation of the island. Even Turks in North Cyprus demonstrated against Turkey, asking it to leave the island. See, http://www.hellasontheweb.org/2010-04-05-22-20-08/2010-04-05-22-28-55/1105--l-r. The tragedy is that all these international organizations have failed in their missions.
50 They were defeated in Greece on August 29, 1949, after committing many atrocities to civilians, to the army, and to the gendarmerie. These communist-mobsters proved to be true betrayers of their own country.
51 See, Viault (1990, p. 505).
52 Poor Greece, after World War II and the communist war for nine years, sent 120 solders to Korea. These solders were eating only hard-tack (διπυρίτην) and their American counterparts were eating like being in the best restaurants with their hot food, salad, fruits, and sweets. (This is a comment from a Greek soldier, who had been sent without any reason to this war at the other end of the world).
53 See, Viault (1990, p. 507).
54 See, Viault (1990, p. 519).
55 The U.S. GDP was $13.363 trillion (2011:Q3). The U.S. national debt was $15.032 trillion (112.5% of the GDP) plus the State and Local governments debts of another $2.89 trillion (a total of 134.12% of the GDP). The total personal debt was $15.998 trillion. The U.S. unfunded liabilities were $116.49 trillion. Total U.S debt was $54.482 trillion. The U.S. grand total of all its debts (public and private) were $204.892 trillion (1,533.28% of the GDP). Thus, it is impossible for the U.S. to pay its debt and its default is obvious in the near future.
56 Christians have been divided in many denominations, leaving the tradition of the First Church. The largest Christian denominations among 37,000 total Christian churches, in 2005, world-wide membership, were (in millions): Roman Catholics: 1,120; Orthodox: 220; Anglicans: 80; Lutheran World Federation: 80; World Methodist Council: 70; and Presbyterians: 60. See, The Wall Street Journal, September 20, 2007, p. A1.
57 A federation (Latin: foedus, foederis, 'covenant'), also known as a federal state, is a type of sovereign state characterized by a union of partially self-governing states or regions united by a central (federal) government. In a federation, the self-governing status of the component states is typically constitutionally entrenched and may not be altered by a unilateral decision of the central government. The form of government or constitutional structure found in a federation is known as federalism. It can be considered the opposite of another system, the unitary state. The government of Germany with sixteen federated Lander is an example of a federation, where as neighboring Austria and its Bundeslander was a unitary state with administrative divisions that became federated, and neighboring France by contrast has always been unitary.
58 See, Spinelli and Rossi (1998, p. 5).
59 “The multiple problems which poison international life on the continent have proved to be insoluble: tracing boundaries through areas inhabited by mixed populations, defense of alien minorities, seaports for landlocked countries, the Balkan question, the Irish problem, and so on. All matters which would find easy solutions in the European Federation.” See, Spinelli and Rossi (1998, p. 5).
60 See, Spinelli and Rossi (1998, p. 7).
61 See, Churchill (1998, pp. 7-11).
62 See, Schuman (1998, p. 14).
63 On March 25, 1957, two treaties were signed in Rome that gave birth to the European Economic Community (EEC) and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom): the Treaties of Rome. The signatories of this agreement were Christian Pineau on behalf of France, Joseph Luns from the Netherlands, Paul Henri Spaak from Belgium, Joseph Bech from Luxemburg, Antonio Segni from Italy, and Konrad Adenauer from the Federal Republic of Germany. The Treaties were ratified by National Parliaments over the following months and came into force on January 1, 1958. (http://www.historiasiglo20.org/europe/traroma.htm).
64 For the Preambles to the Treaties of the European Communities, see, Nelsen and Stubb (1998, pp. 16-17).
65 Jean Omer Marie Gabriel Monnet: ( 9 November 1888 – 16 March 1979) is regarded by many as a chief architect of European Union. Never elected to public office, Monnet worked behind the scenes of American and European governments as a well-connected “pragmatic internationalist”(sic).
66 See, Monnet (1998).
67 Supranationalism is a method of decision-making in multi-national political communities, wherein power is transferred or delegated to an authority by governments of member states. The concept of supranational union is sometimes used to describe the European Union, as a new type of political entity. The EU is the only entity which provides for international popular elections, going beyond the level of political integration normally afforded by international treaty. The term "supranational" is sometimes used in a loose, undefined sense in other contexts, sometimes as a substitute for international, transnational or global. Another method of decision-making in international organizations is intergovernmentalism, in which state governments play a more prominent role.
68 See, De Gaulle (1998).
69 See, Nelsen and Stubb (1998, pp. 45-47), for the “Preamble to the Single European Act”; and for the Preamble to the Treaty on European Union (The Maastricht Treaty), see, Nelsen and Stubb (1998, pp. 69-70).
70 See, Thatcher (1998). Also, Margaret Thatcher had said that she denyed to surrender her country to the EMU even though that she was pressed by the Bilderberg Club (The Spot Light, July 10, 1995). Γιὰ μένα εἶναι τιμὴ ἡ ἀπόρριψί μου ἀπὸ τὴν λέσχη Μπίλντελμπεργκ. Ὅποιος δεχθῇ νὰ παραδώσῃ στὴν Λέσχη τὴν αὐτοκυριαρχία τῆς Χώρας του εἶναι ἐκλεκτός , ἀλλιῶς ἀπορρίπτεται…Θέση τῆς Λέσχης εἶναι νὰ ὑποβαθμισθοῦν τὰ Ἔθνη καὶ νὰ ὑπάρξῃ μία Νέα Παγκόσμια Τάξη Πραγμάτων, ἀλλὰ θὰ ἀποτύχουν. Μὲ παραμέρισαν, γιατὶ ἀρνήθηκα νὰ παραδώσω τὴν κυριαρχία τῆς Βρετανίας στὴν Εὐρωπαϊκὴ Ἕνωση, ποὺ ἀποτελεῖ τὸ ἀπαραίτητο βῆμα τῆς Λέσχης γιὰ τὴν δημιουργία μιὰς Παγκόσμιας Κυβέρνησης…» (δήλωση τῆς πρώην πρωθυπουργοῦ τῆς Βρετανίας Μάργκαρετ Θάτσερ στὴν ἐφημερίδα The Spot Light, 10/7/1995). Ὅρα «Βοανεργές», ἀρ. τεύχ. 45, Σεπτέμβριος -Ὀκτώβριος 2009, σ. 93
71 See, Nelsen and Stubb (1998, pp. 85-92).
72 Neofunctionalism is a theory of regional integration, building on the work of Ernst B. Hass (he was mainly interested in international integration), a political scientist and also Leon Lindberg, another political scientist. Jean Monnet's approach to European integration, which aimed at integrating individual sectors in hopes of achieving spill-over effects to further the process of integration, is said to have followed the neofunctional school's tack. Haas, later, declared the theory of neofunctionalism obsolete, after the process of European integration started stalling in the 1960s, when Charles de Gaulle's "empty chair" politics restrained a little the immunity of the institutions of the ECSC, EEC, and EURATOM. The theory was updated and further specified namely by Wayne Sandholtz, Alec Stone Sweet, and their collaborators in the 1990s and in 2000s. The main contributions of these authors were an employment of empiricism. Neofunctionalism describes and explains the process of regional integration with reference to how three causal factors interact with one another: (a) growing economic interdependence between nations, (b) organizational capacity to resolve disputes and build international legal regimes, and (c) supranational market rules that replace national regulatory regimes. Early Neofunctionalist theory assumed a decline in importance of nationalism and the nation-state; it predicted that, gradually, elected officials, interest groups, and large commercial interests within states would see it in their interests to pursue welfarist objectives best satisfied by the political and market integration at a higher, supranational level. Haas theorized three mechanisms that he thought would drive the integration forward: positive spillover, the transfer of domestic allegiances, and technocratic automaticity. In other words, all these theorists have contributed to today’s global crisis!.. They are the moral perpetrators. See also, Nelsen and Stubb (1998, pp. 93-113).
73 Haas first defined political integration as “the process whereby political actors [they are not actors Mr. Hass, they are betrayers of their nations] in several distinct national settings are persuaded to shift their loyalties, expectations, and political activities toward a new center, whose institutions possess or demand jurisdiction over the pre-existing national states.” Then, he drew on democratic theory, systems theory, group theory, and a host of other approaches to produce a “scientifically rigorous” explanation for European political integration that he also believed held predictive power. This neofunctionalist approach views the integration process as group driven. Federal institutions are established because important political groups see tangible benefits from joint governance in specific areas. The integration process pushes forward, when federal institutions affect the interest of groups that respond by organizing across national boundaries and pushing for more integration. Thus, integration in one area spills over into another, when groups perceive it in their interest. See, Nelsen and Stubb (1998, pp. 139-140).
74 See, Nelsen and Stubb (1998, pp. 115-137).
75 See, Nelsen and Stubb (1998, pp. 145-156).
76 See, Nelsen and Stubb (1998, pp. 157-171).
77 See, Pinder (1998).
78 See, Balassa (1998).
79 Single European Act (SEA) was the first major revision of the 1957 Treaty of Rome. The Act set for the European Community an objective of establishing a Single Market by 31 December 1992, and codified European Political Cooperation, the forerunner of the European Union's Common Foreign and Security Policy. It was signed at Luxembourg on 17 February 1986, and at The Hague on 28 February 1986. It came into effect on 1 July 1987, under the Delors Commission.
80 See, Sandholtz and Zysman (1998).
81 Even EU is imposing its own leaders on the governments of the country-members (i.e., Papademos in Greece and Monti in Italy) during November 2011.
82 Many European leaders are not from the country that they lead or are controlled directly by foreign powers and the corrupted markets (i.e., by the Goldman Sachs club).
83 Sovereignty is the quality of having supreme, independent authority over a territory. It can be found in a power to rule and make law that rests on a political fact for which no purely legal explanation can be provided. The concept has been discussed, debated and questioned throughout history, from the time of the Romans through to the present day, although it has changed in its definition, concept, and application throughout, especially during the Age of Enlightenment. The current notion of state sovereignty was laid down in the Treaty of Westphalia (1648), which, in relation to states, codified the basic principles of territorial integrity, border inviolability, and supremacy of the state (rather than the Church). A sovereign is a supreme lawmaking authority.
Realists view sovereignty as being untouchable and as guaranteed to legitimate nation-states.
Rationalists see sovereignty similarly to Realists. However, Rationalism states that the sovereignty of a nation-state may be violated in extreme circumstances, such as human rights abuses (sic).
Internationalist believe that sovereignty is outdated and an unnecessary obstacle to achieving peace, in line with their belief of a 'global community'. Supporting this is their belief that the concept of nation-states, based on the Treaty of Westphalia, is also outdated and should be abolished (sic).
Anarchists and some libertarians deny the sovereignty of states and governments. Anarchists often argue for a specific individual kind of sovereignty, such as the Anarch as a sovereign individual (sic).
Imperialists hold a view of sovereignty, where power rightfully exists with those states that hold the greatest ability to impose the will of said state, by force or threat of force, over the populace or other states with weaker military or political will. They effectively deny the sovereignty of the individual in deference to either the 'good' of the whole, or to divine right (sic).
84 The ECB has an absolute authority in terms of monetary policy at the European level, and its decisions have a direct impact on growth, employment, and political stability in the country-members. Then, where is the sovereignty of the member-nations?
85 See, Kallianiotis (2011g and h).
86 “A little of Leonidas lies in the fact that I can go where I like and write what I like. He contributed to set us free.” William Golding, The Hot Gates. Also, for us, as Europeans and Greeks (true Europeans), we must respect the European history and tell them in Brussels: << Ω ξειν αγγέλλειν Βρυξέλλαις οτι τῃδε κείμεθα τοις κείνων ρήμασι πει-
θόμενοι.>> (“Tell them in [Brussels], passer-by, that here, obedient only to [our country’s] laws, we lie.”)
87 See, Viault (1990, pp. 565-577).
88 “Greece is in high debt and is borrowing hundred of billions of euros from EU and IMF to cover her expenditures and at the same time France and Germany, in August 2010, were made negotiations to sell to Greece weapons, which cost tens of billions. Also, we (Europeans) want to put Turkey into the EU, which will cost to Greece billions of euros. This is our wrong European policy towards our member-states.” Said Daniel Marc Cohn-Bendit (co-president of the group European Greens-European Free Alliance in the European Parliament). TV News ALTER, September 6, 2010. Ireland’s total cost of fixing its banks could be €50 billion, which will rise its budget deficit to 32% of its GDP. See, The Wall Street Journal, October 1, 2010, pp. A1 and A14.
89 This terrorist attacks in London were from a group organization of the al-Qaeda, which claimed responsibility for explosions during morning rush hour across this city. The public transportation system was shutting down. (Bloomberg.com, July 7, 2005).
90 TV News ANTENNA, July 11, 2005. Islam stormed across the Straight of Gibraltar in 711 A.D. and fought up the Iberian Peninsula. See, http://www.hyperhistory.net/apwh/essays/cot/t12w11franceislam.htm
91 Barbarian Turks cannot and will never be Europeans. Europeans are suffering by they since the 12th century A.D. Their provocative actions against Greece are daily since 1920 (Smyrna and genocide of Greeks and Armenians) and are going on today with their warships and war planes, which are violating the Greek land, sea, and air space. See, dailynews24.gr, December 1, 2011.
92 Even before the international financial crisis, the governor of OECD asked the Greek government to reduce salaries to young workers, to lower pensions, to increase value added taxes, and to put tuitions to public universities. (TV News ALTER and ERT, May 30, 2007). Finally, how many international dictators are the small countries having that control their national well being?
93 During the current debt crisis, IMF is financing the Euro-zone members, like they are third-world countries. This stranger and reducing the EU pride process has caused serious socio-economico-political problems to the EU country-members.
94 The WTO imposes theCodex Alimentarius from 1/1/2010 to all its country-members. ̔Ο κώδικας θά
στιγματίζει ὡς παράνομη κάθε παρέκκλισι ἀπό τά ––ἐπιτρεπόμενα̈̈, ειτε πρόκειται γιά παραγωγή, π.χ., καλλιέργεια κήπου, ειτε γιά απλη κατανάλωση, ειτε γιά εμπόριο καὶ θά τά διώκει. ...Οι χωρες πού θά τολμουν νά κωλύουν τήν ελεύθερη εισαγωγή αυτων των μεταλλαγμένων προϊόντων, των ζώων καὶ των επεξεργασμένων τροφίμων θά διώκονται μέ οικονομικές κυρώσεις. ... Ιδού, λοιπόν πώς θά δημιουργηθουν τά τεράστια μονοπώλια του Αντιχρίστου. Οπως ακριβως λέει ὁ Αγιος Εφραίμ ο Σύρος· Θά τόν προσκυναμε καὶ θά ζηταμε τήν σφραγιδα του, για νά μας δίνῃ νά τρωμε. Ορα, Βοανεργές, ̓Αρ. Τεύχους 45, Σεπτέμβριος- ̓Οκτώβριος 2009, σσ. 90-91.Also, the WTO said $20 billion in loans to Airbus from EU governments to develop the A380 passenger jet and other models were an illegal export subsidy. (The Wall Street Journal, March 24, 2010, pp. A1 and A10). Americans are becoming more hostile to free trade. In a poll, 53% said free-trade pacts hurt the U.S. (The Wall Street Journal, October 4, 2010, pp. A1 and A2).
95 “Opinion polls regularly showed that most national groups were proud of their nationality, satisfied with their own traditions and had little desire to abandon their particular ways of life.” See, Tipton and Aldrich (1987b, pp. 197-198).
96 “There are today vast areas of the world where the autocracy of a Persian monarch like Xerxes is far exceeded by modern tyrannies. Even the self-perpetuating bureaucracy of our modern Western, self-styled ‘democratic’, world would have seemed to the Spartans who died at Thermopylae an unacceptable thing.” See, Bradford (1980, p. 147).
97 See, The Wall Street Journal, February 20, 2009, pp. A1 and A11.
98 Joseph Stiglitz said that “The single currency was under intense pressure and may not survive.” Telegraph.co.uk, October 2, 2010. It will be best for all Europeans that this currency will not survive beyond 2012.
99 In Greece, during the year 2004, there were 5,000,000 pairs of shoes imported from China at the cost of €7 each. The entire shoe industry is going bankrupt, there, and 2,500 small firms went out of business in 2004. (TV News MEGA, December 21, 2004). The Chinese Prime Minister visited Greece and he said that he will buy Greek government bonds and he will support euro, too. (TV News ALTER, October 3, 2010). So far, he has not kept his promise, but Chinese do not understand the European value system. The seaport of Piraeus in Greece is under Chinese control. See, http://foreignpolicyblogs.com/2011/01/15/chinese-%E2%80%98trojan-horse%E2%80%99-investing-in-greece-or-invading-europe-part-i/ . They want to buy a huge area of land in Island, too. (TV News ERT, September 3, 2011).
100 See, Wall Street Journal, May 26-27, 2007, p. A1. China bought its first aircraft carrier in August 2007 and now, it is building one by itself inside China.
101 See, The New York Times, October 28, 2010, pp. A1 and B9.
102 See, Ελληνοχριστιανική Αγωγή, Ετος Ξ ́, Αριθ. 542, Ιούνιος 2007, σσ. 187-188.
103 Kallianiotis (2011f).
104 France had on October 18, 2007 the biggest strike in 12 years crippled the nation’s public transportation system. See, Wall Street Journal, October 19, 2007, p. A1. Today, the strikes are permanent, due to the restrictions by the Troika.